Skull Base 2009; 19(2): 133-140
DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1096195

© Thieme Medical Publishers

Esthesioneuroblastoma: Results and Outcomes of a Single Institution's Experience

P. Daniel Ward1 , Jason A. Heth2 , B. Gregory Thompson2 , Lawrence J. Marentette1
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
29 October 2008 (online)


Objectives: Analysis of outcomes of a cohort of patients with esthesioneuroblastoma. Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting: Patients presenting with esthesioneuroblastoma from 1994 to 2006 in a tertiary care academic medical center. Patients: Fifteen consecutive patients diagnosed as having esthesioneuroblastoma were treated during this time period using a subcranial resection. The mean follow-up is 75 months (range, 2 to 240 mos). Results: The overall survival was 100% and the overall disease-free survival was 49% and 24% at 5 and 15 years, respectively. Patients treated with radiation therapy following surgical resection had a 5- and 15-year disease-free survival of 83.3% compared with a 5- and 15-year disease-free survival of 26.7% and 0%, respectively, for patients whose initial treatment was surgery alone. The mean time to recurrence was 82.1 months. None of the patients had a decrease in Karnofsky Performance Score following subcranial resection. Conclusions: Patients with esthesioneuroblastoma whose initial treatment consists of surgical resection followed by radiation therapy have a longer disease-free survival than patients treated with surgery alone. However, initial treatment modality did not have an effect on survival. Long-term, close follow-up is necessary to identify recurrences, which can be treated with a high degree of success.


  • 1 Berger L, Luc G, Richard D. The olfactory esthesioneuroepithelioma.  Bull Assoc Fr Etud Cancer. 1924;  13 410-421
  • 2 Broich G, Pagliari A, Ottaviani F. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a general review of the cases published since the discovery of the tumour in 1924.  Anticancer Res. 1997;  17 2683-2706
  • 3 Hyams V J, Batsakis J G, Michaels L. Tumors of the upper respiratory tract and ear. Atlas of Tumor Pathology. Washington, DC; Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 1988
  • 4 Taxy J B, Bharani N K, Mills S E, Frierson Jr H F et al.. The spectrum of olfactory neural tumors. A light-microscopic immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis.  Am J Surg Pathol. 1986;  10 687-695
  • 5 Loy A H, Reibel J F, Thomas C Y et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: continued follow-up of a single institution's experience.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;  132 134-138
  • 6 Woertgen C, Rothoerl R D, Hosemann W et al.. Quality of life following surgery for malignancies of the anterior skull base.  Skull Base. 2007;  17 119-123
  • 7 Raveh J, Vuillemin T, Sutter F. Subcranial management of 395 combined frontobasal-midface fractures.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;  114 1114-1122
  • 8 Briant T D, Zorn M, Tucker W, Wax M K. The craniofacial approach to anterior skull base tumors.  J Otolaryngol. 1993;  22 190-194
  • 9 Roux F X, Pages J C, Nataf F et al.. Malignant ethmoid-sphenoidal tumors. 130 cases. Retrospective study [in French].  Neurochirurgie. 1997;  43 100-110
  • 10 Vanaclocha V, Saiz-Sapena N. Surgical treatment of anterior skull base tumours.  Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1997;  139 857-868
  • 11 Delfini R, Iannetti G, Belli E et al.. Cranio-facial approaches for tumours involving the anterior half of the skull base.  Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1993;  124 53-60
  • 12 Pinsolle J, San-Galli F, Siberchicot F et al.. Modified approach for ethmoid and anterior skull base surgery.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;  117 779-782
  • 13 Jung T M, TerKonda R P, Haines S J et al.. Outcome analysis of the transglabellar/subcranial approach for lesions of the anterior cranial fossa: a comparison with the classic craniotomy approach.  Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;  116(6 Pt 1) 642-646
  • 14 Kellman R M, Marentette L. The transglabellar/subcranial approach to the anterior skull base: a review of 72 cases.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;  127 687-690
  • 15 Raveh J, Laedrach K, Speiser M et al.. The subcranial approach for fronto-orbital and anteroposterior skull-base tumors.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;  119 385-393
  • 16 Zappia J J, Carroll W R, Wolf G T et al.. Olfactory neuroblastoma: the results of modern treatment approaches at the University of Michigan.  Head Neck. 1993;  15 190-196
  • 17 Elkon D, Hightower S I, Lim M L et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma.  Cancer. 1979;  44 1087-1094
  • 18 Morita A, Ebersold M J, Olsen K D et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: prognosis and management.  Neurosurgery. 1993;  32 706-714 discussion 714-715
  • 19 Dulguerov P, Calcaterra T. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the UCLA experience 1970–1990.  Laryngoscope. 1992;  102 843-849
  • 20 Resto V A, Eisele D W, Forastiere A et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the Johns Hopkins experience.  Head Neck. 2000;  22 550-558
  • 21 Diaz Jr E M, Johnigan 3rd R H, Pero C et al.. Olfactory neuroblastoma: the 22-year experience at one comprehensive cancer center.  Head Neck. 2005;  27 138-149
  • 22 Jethanamest D, Morris L G, Sikora A G, Kutler D I. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a population-based analysis of survival and prognostic factors.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;  133 276-280
  • 23 Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Rhys-Evans P H. Contemporary clinical commentary: esthesioneuroblastoma: an update on management of the neck.  Laryngoscope. 2003;  113 1935-1938
  • 24 Dulguerov P, Allal A S, Calcaterra T C. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis and review.  Lancet Oncol. 2001;  2 683-690
  • 25 Simon J H, Zhen W, McCulloch T M et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the University of Iowa experience 1978–1998.  Laryngoscope. 2001;  111 488-493
  • 26 Argiris A, Dutra J, Tseke P, Haines K. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the Northwestern University experience.  Laryngoscope. 2003;  113 155-160
  • 27 Chao K S, Kaplan C, Simpson J R et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the impact of treatment modality.  Head Neck. 2001;  23 749-757
  • 28 Ahmad K, Fayos J V. Role of radiation therapy in the treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1980;  6 349-352
  • 29 Foote R L, Morita A, Ebersold M J et al.. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the role of adjuvant radiation therapy.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;  27 835-842
  • 30 O'Connor T A, McLean P, Juillard G J, Parker R G. Olfactory neuroblastoma.  Cancer. 1989;  63 2426-2428
  • 31 Polin R S, Sheehan J P, Chenelle A G et al.. The role of preoperative adjuvant treatment in the management of esthesioneuroblastoma: the University of Virginia experience.  Neurosurgery. 1998;  42 1029-1037
  • 32 McElroy Jr E A, Buckner J C, Lewis J E. Chemotherapy for advanced esthesioneuroblastoma: the Mayo Clinic experience.  Neurosurgery. 1998;  42 1023-1027 discussion 1027-1028
  • 33 Spaulding C A, Kranyak M S, Constable W C, Stewart F M. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a comparison of two treatment eras.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;  15 581-590

P. Daniel WardM.D. M.S. 

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan

1500 E. Medical Center Drive, 1904D Taubman Center, Ann Arbor, MI