Facial plast Surg 2009; 25(1): 049-062
DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1112232
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Minimally Invasive Orthognathic Surgery

Cory M. Resnick1 , Leonard B. Kaban1 , Maria J. Troulis1
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
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Publication History

Publication Date:
10 February 2009 (online)


Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.