Horm Metab Res 2009; 41(6): 436-442
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1215568
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Thyroid Autoimmunity and Environment

M. L. Tanda 1 , E. Piantanida 1 , A. Lai 1 , V. Lombardi 1 , I. Dalle Mule 1 , L. Liparulo 1 , N. Pariani 1 , L. Bartalena 1
  • 1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
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Publikationsverlauf

received 12.01.2009

accepted 16.02.2009

Publikationsdatum:
02. April 2009 (online)

Abstract

Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) are the result of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, the former account for about 70–80% of liability to develop AITDs. However, at least 20–30% is contributed by environmental factors, which include certainly smoking (at least for Graves’ disease and orbitopathy), probably stress, iodine and selenium intake, several drugs, irradiation, pollutants, viral and bacterial infections, allergy, pregnancy, and post-partum. Evidence for the intervention of these factors is often limited, and the mechanisms whereby environmental factors may concur to the onset of AITDs are in many instances unclear. Nevertheless, gene-environment interaction seems a fundamental process for the occurrence of AITDs.

References

Correspondence

Prof. L. Bartalena

Division of Endocrinology

Department of Clinical Medicine

University of Insubria

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