Horm Metab Res 2009; 41(6): 436-442
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1215568

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Thyroid Autoimmunity and Environment

M. L. Tanda 1 , E. Piantanida 1 , A. Lai 1 , V. Lombardi 1 , I. Dalle Mule 1 , L. Liparulo 1 , N. Pariani 1 , L. Bartalena 1
  • 1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
Further Information

Publication History

received 12.01.2009

accepted 16.02.2009

Publication Date:
02 April 2009 (online)


Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) are the result of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, the former account for about 70–80% of liability to develop AITDs. However, at least 20–30% is contributed by environmental factors, which include certainly smoking (at least for Graves’ disease and orbitopathy), probably stress, iodine and selenium intake, several drugs, irradiation, pollutants, viral and bacterial infections, allergy, pregnancy, and post-partum. Evidence for the intervention of these factors is often limited, and the mechanisms whereby environmental factors may concur to the onset of AITDs are in many instances unclear. Nevertheless, gene-environment interaction seems a fundamental process for the occurrence of AITDs.



Prof. L. Bartalena

Division of Endocrinology

Department of Clinical Medicine

University of Insubria

Ospedale di Circolo

Viale Borri 57

21100 Varese


Phone: +39/0332/27 85 61

Fax: +39/0332/27 83 58

Email: [email protected]

Email: [email protected]