Int J Sports Med 2009; 30(11): 802-807
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1231071
Training & Testing

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Evaluation of an Innovative Critical Power Model in Intermittent Vertical Jump

G. Pereira 1 , 2 , P. B. de Freitas 3 , A. Rodacki 4 , C. Ugrinowitsch 5 , N. Fowler 6 , E. Kokubun 2
  • 1Positivo University, Nucleus of Bioliogical and Health Sciences, Curitiba, Brazil
  • 2Sao Paulo State University, Department of Physical Education, Rio Claro, Brazil
  • 3University of Delaware, Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, Newark, United States
  • 4Federal University of Parana, Department of Physical Education, Curitiba, Brazil
  • 5University of Sao Paulo, Department of Sport, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 6Manchester Metropolitan University, Exercise and Sport Science Department, Alsager, United Kingdom
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision June 04, 2009

Publication Date:
14 August 2009 (online)


The aim of this study was to test if the critical power model can be used to determine the critical rest interval (CRI) between vertical jumps. Ten males performed intermittent countermovement jumps on a force platform with different resting periods (4.1±0.3 s, 5.0±0.4 s, 5.9±0.6 s). Jump trials were interrupted when participants could no longer maintain 95% of their maximal jump height. After interruption, number of jumps, total exercise duration and total external work were computed. Time to exhaustion (s) and total external work (J) were used to solve the equation Work=a+b·time. The CRI (corresponding to the shortest resting interval that allowed jump height to be maintained for a long time without fatigue) was determined dividing the average external work needed to jump at a fixed height (J) by b parameter (J/s). In the final session, participants jumped at their calculated CRI. A high coefficient of determination (0.995±0.007) and the CRI (7.5±1.6 s) were obtained. In addition, the longer the resting period, the greater the number of jumps (44±13, 71±28, 105±30, 169±53 jumps; p<0.0001), time to exhaustion (179±50, 351±120, 610±141, 1,282±417s; p<0.0001) and total external work (28.0±8.3, 45.0±16.6, 67.6±17.8, 111.9±34.6kJ; p<0.0001). Therefore, the critical power model may be an alternative approach to determine the CRI during intermittent vertical jumps.


  • 1 Berthoin S, Baquet G, Dupont G, Van PE. Critical velocity during continuous and intermittent exercises in children.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;  98 132-138
  • 2 Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Millet GP, Pactat F, Ahmaidi S. Predicting intermittent running performance: Critical velocity versus endurance index.  Int J Sports Med. 2008;  29 307-315
  • 3 Dugan SA, Frontera WR. Muscle fatigue and muscle injury.  Phys Med Rehabil Clin Am. 2000;  11 385-403
  • 4 Dupont G, Blondel N, Lensel G, Berthoin S. Critical velocity and time spent at a high level of VO2 for short intermittent runs at supramaximal velocities.  Can J Appl Physiol. 2002;  27 103-115
  • 5 Gaesser GA, Poole DC. The slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in humans.  Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1996;  24 35-71
  • 6 Hill DW. The relationship between power and time to fatigue in cycle ergometer exercise.  Int J Sports Med. 2004;  25 357-361
  • 7 Hill DW, Alain C, Kennedy MD. Modeling the relationship between velocity and time to fatigue in rowing.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;  35 2098-2105
  • 8 Hill DW, Smith JC. A comparison of methods of estimating anaerobic work capacity.  Ergonomics. 1993;  36 1495-1500
  • 9 Hill DW, Smith JC. Determination of critical power by pulmonary gas exchange.  Can J Appl Physiol. 1999;  24 74-86
  • 10 Housh DJ, Housh TJ, Bauge SM. A methodological consideration for the determination of critical power and anaerobic work capacity.  Res Q Exerc Sport. 1990;  61 406-409
  • 11 Hughson RL, Orok CJ, Staudt LE. A high velocity treadmill running test to assess endurance running potential.  Int J Sports Med. 1984;  5 23-25
  • 12 Kachouri M, Vandewalle H, Billat LV, Huet M, Thomaidis M, Jousselin E, Monod H. Critical velocity of continuous and intermittent running exercise: An example of the limits of the critical power concept.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;  73 484-487
  • 13 Kawahira K, Shimodozono M, Ogata A, Tanaka N. Addition of intensive repetition of facilitation exercise to multidisciplinary rehabilitation promotes motor functional recovery of the hemiplegic lower limb.  J Rehabil Med. 2004;  36 159-164
  • 14 Kuitunen S, Avela J, Kyrolainen H, Komi PV. Voluntary activation and mechanical performance of human triceps surae muscle after exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle jumping exercise.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;  91 538-544
  • 15 Kuitunen S, Kyrolainen H, Avela J, Komi PV. Leg stiffness modulation during exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise.  Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007;  17 67-75
  • 16 Lee TD, Swanson LR, Hall AL. What is repeated in a repetition? Effects of practice conditions on motor skill acquisition.  Phys Ther. 1991;  71 150-156
  • 17 Linthorne NP. Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform.  Am J Physics. 2001;  69 1198-1204
  • 18 Liu Y, Peng CH, Wei SH, Chi JC, Tsai FR, Chen JY. Active leg stiffness and energy stored in the muscles during maximal counter movement jump in the aged.  J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2006;  16 342-351
  • 19 Mair SD, Seaber AV, Glisson RR, Garrett Jr WE. The role of fatigue in susceptibility to acute muscle strain injury.  Am J Sports Med. 1996;  24 137-143
  • 20 Monod H, Scherrer J. The work capacity of a sinergic muscular group.  Ergonomics. 1965;  65 329-338
  • 21 Moritani T, Nagata A, deVries HA, Muro M. Critical power as a measure of physical work capacity and anaerobic threshold.  Ergonomics. 1981;  24 339-350
  • 22 Morton RH. The critical power and related whole-body bioenergetic models.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;  96 339-354
  • 23 Nebelsick-Gullett LJ, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Bauge SM. A comparison between methods of measuring anaerobic work capacity.  Ergonomics. 1988;  31 1413-1419
  • 24 Pereira G, Almeida AG, Rodacki ALF, Ugrinowitsch C, Fowler NE, Kokubun E. The influence of resting period length on jumping performance.  J Strength Cond Res. 2008;  22 1259-1264
  • 25 Pereira G, Morse CI, Ugrinowitsch C, Rodacki AL, Kokubun E, Fowler NE. Manipulation of rest period length induces different causes of fatigue in vertical jumping.  Int J Sports Med. 2009;  30 325-330
  • 26 Poole DC. Measurements of the anaerobic work capacity in a group of highly trained runners.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986;  18 703-705
  • 27 Poole DC, Ward SA, Gardner GW, Whipp BJ. Metabolic and respiratory profile of the upper limit for prolonged exercise in man.  Ergonomics. 1988;  31 1265-1279
  • 28 Rodacki AL, Fowler NE, Bennett SJ. Multi-segment coordination: Fatigue effects.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;  33 1157-1167
  • 29 Rodacki AL, Fowler NE, Bennett SJ. Vertical jump coordination: Fatigue effects.  Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;  34 105-116
  • 30 Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Rodacki AL, Batista M, Ricard MD. Influence of training background on jumping height.  J Strength Cond Res. 2007;  21 848-852
  • 31 Vanrenterghem J, De CD, Van CP. Necessary precautions in measuring correct vertical jumping height by means of force plate measurements.  Ergonomics. 2001;  44 814-818
  • 32 Wakayoshi K, Ikuta K, Yoshida T, Udo M, Moritani T, Mutoh Y, Miyashita M. Determination and validity of critical velocity as an index of swimming performance in the competitive swimmer.  Eur J Appl Physiol. 1992;  64 153-157
  • 33 Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. Waterloo: Wiley 2005


Dr. G. Pereira

Positivo University

Nucleus of Biological and Health Sciences

Rua Prof. Pedro Viriato Parigot de Souza, 5300

Campo comprido, 81250 330, Curitiba-PR


Phone: 55/41/3317 30 73

Fax: 55/41/3317 30 30