Facial plast Surg 2011; 27(6): 517-522
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1298784
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Neuromodulators: Available Agents, Physiology, and Anatomy

Kartik Nettar1 , Corey Maas1
  • 1Aesthetic and Facial Plastic Surgery Unit, The Maas Clinic, San Francisco, California
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
28 December 2011 (online)


Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.