Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(01): 62-67
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1314814
Behavioural Sciences
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Accumulation of Short Bouts of Non-Exercise Daily Physical Activity is Associated with Lower Visceral Fat in Japanese Female Adults

M. Ayabe
1   Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
2   Division of Preventive Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan
H. Kumahara
1   Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
3   Faculty of Nutritional Sciences, Nakamura Gakuen University, Nakamura, Japan
K. Morimura
1   Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
N. Sakane
2   Division of Preventive Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan
K. Ishii
4   Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, Doshisha, Japan
H. Tanaka
1   Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 17 April 2012

Publication Date:
17 August 2012 (online)


The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relationship between bouts of very short daily physical activity (PA) lasting <10 min with obesity and abnormal fat distributions. A total of 42 females (age 50±6 years, height 156±5 cm, body weight 54±8 kg, body mass index 22±3 kg/m2) participated in the present investigation. Computed tomography was used to evaluate the area of visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT). All participants wore a pedometer with a one-axial accelerometer (Lifecorder, Kenz, Japan) in order to determine their frequency (bouts/day) of PA and moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA). The total frequency of PA and MVPA, including all bout durations, was not significantly associated with the body fat distribution. The frequency of PA lasting longer than 3 min and 5 min, and MVPA lasting longer than 1 min and 3 min were significantly associated with the area of the VAT (p<0.05). A smaller area of VAT was associated with a higher frequency of PA and MVPA lasting 1–5 min. The present investigation did not find that very short bouts of PA lasting<1 min played a significant role in controlling abdominal fat distribution.

  • References

  • 1 Arner P. Impact of exercise on adipose tissue metabolism in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 19 (Suppl. 04) S18-S21
  • 2 Arner P. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999; 23 (Suppl. 01) 10-13
  • 3 Ayabe M, Aoki J, Ishii K, Takayama K, Tanaka H. Pedometer accuracy during stair climbing and bench stepping exercises. J Sports Sci Med 2008; 7: 249-254
  • 4 Ayabe M, Aoki J, Kumahara H, Tanaka H. Duration and frequency of daily physical activity and achievement of exercise and physical activity reference for health promotion 2006. Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med 2008; 57: 577-586
  • 5 Ayabe M, Ishii K, Takayama K, Aoki J, Tanaka H. Comparison of interdevice measurement difference of pedometers in younger and older adults. Br J Sports Med 2010; 44: 95-99
  • 6 Ayabe M, Kumahara H, Aoki J, Tanaka H. Assessment of frequency and bouts duration of moderate intensity physical activity by an accelerometer in 4-sec interval under-free living condition. J Jpn Soc Study Obes 2007; 13: 197-200
  • 7 Booth FW, Gordon SE, Carlson CJ, Hamilton MT. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 774-787
  • 8 Borkan GA, Gerzof SG, Robbins AH, Hults DE, Silbert CK, Silbert JE. Assessment of abdominal fat content by computed tomography. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 172-177
  • 9 Catenacci VA, Grunwald GK, Ingebrigtsen JP, Jakicic JM, McDermott MD, Phelan S, Wing RR, Hill JO, Wyatt HR. Physical activity patterns using accelerometry in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 6: 1163-1170
  • 10 Church TS, Earnest CP, Skinner JS, Blair SN. Effects of different doses of physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary, overweight or obese postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007; 297: 2081-2091
  • 11 Davis MG, Fox KR. Physical activity patterns assessed by accelerometry in older people. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007; 100: 581-589
  • 12 Greiwe JS, Hickner RC, Shah SD, Cryer PE, Holloszy JO. Norepinephrine response to exercise at the same relative intensity before and after endurance exercise training. J Appl Physiol 1999; 86: 531-535
  • 13 Gullestad L, Myers J, Bjornerheim R, Berg KJ, Djoseland O, Hall C, Lund K, Kjekshus J, Simonsen S. Gas exchange and neurohumoral response to exercise: influence of the exercise protocol. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 496-502
  • 14 Harriss DJ, Atkinson G. Update – ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. Int J Sports Med 2011; 32: 819-821
  • 15 Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1423-1434
  • 16 Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 661-666
  • 17 Irving BA, Davis CK, Brock DW, Weltman JY, Swift D, Barrett EJ, Gaesser GA, Weltman A. Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 1863-1872
  • 18 Ishikawa-Takata K, Ohta T, Moritaki K, Gotou T, Inoue S. Obesity, weight change and risks for hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia in Japanese men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56: 601-607
  • 19 Ishikawa-Takata K, Tabata I. Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion 2006 (EPAR2006). J Epidemiol 2007; 17: 177
  • 20 Kodama S, Shu M, Saito K, Murakami H, Tanaka K, Kuno S, Ajisaka R, Sone Y, Onitake F, Takahashi A, Shimano H, Kondo K, Yamada N, Sone H. Even low-intensity and low-volume exercise training may improve insulin resistance in the elderly. Intern Med 2007; 46: 1071-1077
  • 21 Kumahara H, Schutz Y, Ayabe M, Yoshioka M, Yoshitake Y, Shindo M, Ishii K, Tanaka H. The use of uniaxial accelerometry for the assessment of physical-activity-related energy expenditure: a validation study against whole-body indirect calorimetry. Br J Nutr 2004; 91: 235-243
  • 22 Matsuzawa Y, SYI Inoue, Sakata T, Saito K, Sato Y, Shirai K, Ono M, Miyazaki S, Tokunaga K, Fukagawa K, Yamanouchi K, Nakamura T. New diagnosis and classification of obesity. J Jpn Soc Study Obes 2006; 6: 18-28
  • 23 Metzger JS, Catellier DJ, Evenson KR, Treuth MS, Rosamond WD, Siega-Riz AM. Patterns of objectively measured physical activity in the United States. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40: 630-638
  • 24 Miyashita M, Burns SF, Stensel DJ. Accumulating short bouts of brisk walking reduces postprandial plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 1225-1231
  • 25 Orendurff MS, Schoen JA, Bernatz GC, Segal AD, Klute GK. How humans walk: bout duration, steps per bout, and rest duration. J Rehabil Res Dev 2008; 45: 1077-1089
  • 26 Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL, Macera CA, Bouchard C, Buchner D, Ettinger W, Heath GW, King AC, Kriska A, Leon AS, Marcus BH, Morris J, Paffenbarger Jr RS, Patrick K, Pollock ML, Rippe JM, Sallis J, Wilmore JH. Physical Activity and Public Health: A Recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 1995; 273: 402-407
  • 27 Sasai H, Katayama Y, Nakata Y, Eto M, Tsujimoto T, Ohkubo H, Tanaka K. The effects of vigorous physical activity on intra-abdominal fat levels: A preliminary study of middle-aged Japanese men. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 88: 34-41
  • 28 Sieverdes JC, Sui X, Lee DC, Church TS, McClain A, Hand GA, Blair SN. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study of men. Br J Sports Med 2009; 44: 238-244
  • 29 Strath SJ, Holleman RG, Ronis DL, Swartz AM, Richardson CR. Objective physical activity accumulation in bouts and nonbouts and relation to markers of obesity in US adults. Prev Chronic Dis 2008; 5: A131
  • 30 Swartz AM, Squires L, Strath SJ. Energy expenditure of interruptions to sedentary behavior. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011; 8: 69
  • 31 Tahara Y, Yukawa K, Tsunawake N, Saeki S, Nishiyama K, Urata H, Katsuno K, Fukuyama Y, Michimukou R, Moji K, Takemoto T. Body density assessment utilizing skinfold thickness and age in Japanese women. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 1995; 42: 84-94
  • 32 Takken T, Giardini A, Reybrouck T, Gewillig M, Hovels-Gurich HH, Longmuir PE, McCrindle BW, Paridon SM, Hager A. Recommendations for physical activity, recreation sport, and exercise training in paediatric patients with congenital heart disease: a report from the Exercise, Basic & Translational Research Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the European Congenital Heart and Lung Exercise Group, and the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2011; [Epub ahead of print]
  • 33 Tokunaga K, Matsuzawa Y, Ishikawa K, Tarui S. A novel technique for the determination of body fat by computed tomography. Int J Obes 1983; 7: 437-445
  • 34 Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TY, Lee MC, Chan HT, Tsao CK, Tsai SP, Wu X. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2011; 378: 1244-1253
  • 35 Yoshioka M, Ayabe M, Yahiro T, Higuchi H, Higaki Y, St-Amand J, Miyazaki H, Yoshitake Y, Shindo M, Tanaka H. Long-period accelerometer monitoring shows the role of physical activity in overweight and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29: 502-508
  • 36 Young DR, Jerome GJ, Chen C, Laferriere D, Vollmer WM. Patterns of physical activity among overweight and obese adults. Prev Chronic Dis 2009; 6: A90
  • 37 Zhang C, Rexrode KM, van Dam RM, Li TY, Hu FB. Abdominal obesity and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: sixteen years of follow-up in US women. Circulation 2008; 117: 1658-1667