Facial plast Surg 2012; 28(06): 603-610
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1329935
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Management of Venous Malformations

Gresham T. Richter1, Leah Braswell2
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Vascular Anomalies Clinic and Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas
  • 2Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
27 November 2012 (online)

Abstract

Venous malformations (VMs) frequently occur in the head and neck with a predilection for the parotid gland, submandibular triangle, buccal space, muscles of mastication, lips, and upper aerodigestive tract. They are composed of congenitally disrupted ectatic veins with inappropriate connections and tubular channels. Because VMs have poorly defined boundaries and a tendency to infiltrate normal tissue, they require calculated treatment decisions in the effort to preserve surrounding architecture. Sclerotherapy, surgical excision, neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser therapy, or a combination of these modalities is employed in the management of VMs. Although many small VMs can be cured, the objective is often to control the disease with periodic therapy. Location, size, and proximity to vital structures dictate the type of therapy chosen. Vigilance with long-term follow up is important. This review outlines current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to simple and extensive cervicofacial VMs.