Arzneimittelforschung 2012; 62(12): 650-654
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1330018
Original Article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Effect of Zeolite Nano-Materials and Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Leaf Extract on Increase in Urinary Clearance of Systematically Absorbed Nicotine

R. E. Malekshah1, R. Mahjub2, 3, M. Rastgarpanah4, M. Ghorbani5, A. R. Partoazar6, S. E. Mehr6, A. R. Dehpour6, F. A. Dorkoosh2
  • 1Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 3School of Pharmacy, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran
  • 4Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 5Danish Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 6Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Further Information

Publication History

received 02 July 2012

accepted 17 October 2012

Publication Date:
29 November 2012 (eFirst)


Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.

It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine.