Effects of Star Apple Fruit (Chrysophyllum albidum) Crude Extracts on Clinical Microorganisms
Star apple fruit (Chrysophyllum albidum) of a family Sapotaceae from a seasonal (December-March)  tropical rainforest tree and commonly consumed for its palatable taste as food was dried, pulverized and extracted with crude aqueous, ethanolic extracts as well as oil from the seeds. The aim was to discover a more effective antimicrobial plant that can inhibit resistant strains, since antibiotics resistance is on the increase . Agar well diffusion technique sensitivity test was used to screen for their antimicrobial activities. The results revealed 25% resistance to ciprofloxacin of the tested bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, S. faecalis (E. faecalis), S. typhi, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis and S. epidermidis) but 100% susceptibility to the fruit aqueous and ethanolic crude extract. There was 100% bactericidal activity at 32 mg/mL (aqueous extract) and 64 mg/mL (ethanolic extract). S. faecalis had highest inhibition zone (29.00 ± 0.58 mm) at 800 mg/mL (aqueous extract) and the least B. subtilis and S. epidermidis (0.0 ± 0.0 mm) at 200 mg/mL and 800 mg/mL (ethanolic extract). Seed Oil inhibited 25% (S. epidermidis and S aureus). Five fungi (A. flavus, A. niger, Penicillum spp, A. fumingatus and C. albican) tested with the extracts showed 20% Inhibition of C. albican by the fruit extract. Aqueous crude extracts were more efficient than the ethanolic extracts in the tested organisms and at all concentrations, figure 1.
Acknowledgements: Thanks go to Usman, AR Researcher Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Department, University of Lagos for the collection of microorganisms. Partial support for this work was provided by Elder and Mrs. Urua, E and Dr. and Mrs. Urua, I, is gratefully acknowledged. References:  Okoli BJ, Okere OS, (2010) Trans campus J of Research in Nat Dev 8(1): 1.  Williams R (2000) Essential Drug Monitor, 1: 28 – 29.