Facial plast Surg 2013; 29(02): 121-126
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1341586
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

An Interactive Three-dimensional Nose Model for Rhinosurgery

Werner Johannes Heppt
1  Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Academic Teaching Hospital, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Germany
Heinrich Godbersen
2  Department of Applied Sciences, Beuth University, Berlin, Germany
Thomas Hildebrandt
3  Private practice of otorhinolaryngology in association with the Limmatklinik, Zurich, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 April 2013 (online)


The motivation behind the development of a new interactive three-dimensional (3D) model of the cartilaginous and bony framework of the nose originated from the significant demand for sophisticated patient communication and for accurate documentation of the surgical steps in rhinoplasty. Basically, the model consists of three features—the viewer function, the freehand function, and default applications—enabling the surgeon to replicate fundamental compilations of findings and to graphically document operative measures easily. The user is able to save all graphics in two-dimensional format and allocate them to patient files. Because the application was designed to be sufficiently universal without being too complex, the 3D model provides a well-balanced mix between freehand and default functions, representing the consistent development of currently available tools.