The Orbits—Anatomical Features in View of Innovative Surgical Methods
14 November 2014 (online)
The aim of this article is to update on anatomical key elements of the orbits in reference to surgical innovations. This is a selective literature review supplemented with the personal experience of the authors, using illustrations and photographs of anatomical dissections. The seven osseous components of the orbit can be conceptualized into a simple geometrical layout of a four-sided pyramid with the anterior aditus as a base and the posterior cone as apex. All neurovascular structures pass through bony openings in the sphenoid bone before diversification in the mid and anterior orbit. A set of landmarks such as the optic and maxillary strut comes into new focus. Within the topographical surfaces of the internal orbit the lazy S-shaped floor and the posteromedial bulge are principal determinants for the ocular globe position. The inferomedial orbital strut represents a discernible sagittal buttress. The periorbita and orbital soft tissue contents—extraocular muscles, septae, neurovasculature—are detailed and put into context with periorbital dissection.