Injectable Fillers: Review of Material and Properties
12 March 2015 (online)
With an increasing understanding of the aging process and the rapidly growing interest in minimally invasive treatments, injectable facial fillers have changed the perspective for the treatment and rejuvenation of the aging face. Other than autologous fat and certain preformed implants, the collagen family products were the only Food and Drug Administration approved soft tissue fillers. But the overwhelming interest in soft tissue fillers had led to the increase in research and development of other products including bioengineered nonpermanent implants and permanent alloplastic implants. As multiple injectable soft tissue fillers and biostimulators are continuously becoming available, it is important to understand the biophysical properties inherent in each, as these constitute the clinical characteristics of the product. This article will review the materials and properties of the currently available soft tissue fillers: hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-l-lactic acid, polymethylmethacrylate, and autologous fat (and aspirated tissue including stem cells).