State of the Art in Treating Velopharyngeal Dysfunction
20 April 2016 (online)
Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is a condition that can greatly impact a child's quality of life. The initial evaluation and workup of patients presenting with VPD is generally straightforward, consisting of history taking and physical examination, perceptual speech analysis, and objective techniques such as nasometry and speech endoscopy. However, there is no standardized treatment option. Multiple surgical and nonsurgical techniques have been described, all with varying approaches to correction of the defect and similarly, with varying risks and outcomes. We aim to provide an overview of this condition and available treatment options, as well as highlight recent updates in management, including the use of cine magnetic resonance imaging, new injectable options for pharyngeal augmentation, and the evolving role of robotic surgery. We also discuss techniques to facilitate teaching during oropharyngeal surgery and our approach to revision surgical planning.