Facial plast Surg 2016; 32(02): 199-208
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1582248
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Gracilis Free Muscle Transfer in the Treatment of Pediatric Facial Paralysis

Pundrique R. Sharma1, Ronald M. Zuker1, Gregory H. Borschel1
  • 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
20 April 2016 (online)


Facial paralysis in children is a disabling functional and aesthetic issue. In cases where recovery is not expected, there are numerous options for reconstruction of the midface “smile.” At the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, we have been using a free functional gracilis muscle transfer. In this article, we review the technical details of the procedure, which we have refined over the past 30 years, and also briefly discuss secondary and adjunctive procedures.