DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1590809
© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

Convergent Routes to Pyrroles Exploiting the Unusual Radical Chemistry of Xanthates – An Overview

Béatrice Quiclet-Sire, Samir Z. Zard*
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 15 May 2017

Accepted after revision: 06 June 2017

Publication Date:
21 July 2017 (eFirst)

This article is affectionately dedicated to Professor Victor Snieckus on the occasion of his 80th birthday.


Convergent routes to a variety of pyrroles involving radical additions of xanthates are described. Emphasis is placed on reactions leading to the formation of 1,4-diketones or 1,4-ketoaldehydes or their synthetic equivalents, which can then be condensed with ammonia or primary amines in a variation of the classical Paal–Knorr synthesis of pyrroles. The modification of pyrroles by direct radical addition is also discussed.

1 Introduction

2 Earlier Routes to Pyrroles

3 The Xanthate Radical Addition–Transfer Process

4 Application to Pyrrole Synthesis

5 Further Variations

6 Direct Modification of Existing Pyrrole Rings

7 Outlook and Perspectives