Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37(05): 689-707
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1592187
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules: How to Minimize Harm

Igor Barjaktarevic
1   Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Immunology, and Allergy, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
Doug Arenberg
2   Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Brandon S. Grimes
1   Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Immunology, and Allergy, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
Kathleen Ruchalski
3   Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
Denise R. Aberle
3   Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
4   Department of Bioengineering, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
12 October 2016 (online)


Each year, more than 1 million persons worldwide are found to have a lung nodule that carries a risk of being malignant. In reality, the vast majority of lung nodules are benign, whether identified by screening or incidentally. The consequences of delaying or missing the diagnosis of lung cancer can be substantial, as can be the consequences of invasive procedures on patients with benign lung nodules. The challenge for the clinician caring for these patients is to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules with the least harm possible. In this review, we will discuss management strategies of the indeterminate pulmonary nodule and will review recent advances and harm-reduction strategies.

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