J Pediatr Genet 2016; 05(04): 209-219
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593505
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Review of the Genetic Basis of Jaw Malformations

Mairaj K. Ahmed
1  Department of Dentistry/Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States
2  Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States
,
Xiaoqian Ye
3  Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States
,
Peter J. Taub
4  Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

28 September 2015

04 October 2015

Publication Date:
12 October 2016 (eFirst)

Abstract

Genetic etiologies for congenital anomalies of the facial skeleton, namely, the maxilla and mandible, are important to understand and recognize. Malocclusions occur when there exist any significant deviation from what is considered a normal relationship between the upper jaw (maxilla) and the lower jaw (mandible). They may be the result of anomalies of the teeth alone, the bones alone, or both. A number of genes play a role in the facial skeletal development and are regulated by a host of additional regulatory molecules. As such, numerous craniofacial syndromes specifically affect the development of the jaws. The following review discusses several genetic anomalies that specifically affect the bones of the craniofacial skeleton and lead to malocclusion.