Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2017; 21(04): 459-469
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1604007
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Advanced MRI Techniques for Muscle Imaging

Vivek Kalia1, Doris G. Leung2, Darryl B. Sneag1, Filippo Del Grande3, John A. Carrino1
  • 1Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York
  • 2The Center for Genetic Muscle Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 3Servizio si Radiologia del Sottoceneri, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano, Ticino, Switzerland
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 August 2017 (online)


Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can evaluate a wide array of muscle pathologies including acute or chronic muscle injury, musculotendinous response to injury, intramuscular collections and soft tissue masses, and others. In recent years, MRI has played a more important role in muscle disease diagnosis and monitoring. MRI provides excellent spatial and contrast resolution and helps direct optimal sites for muscle biopsy. Whole-body MRI now helps identify signature patterns of muscular involvement in large anatomical regions with relative ease. Quantitative MRI has advanced the evaluation and disease tracking of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration in entities such as muscular dystrophies. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) now allows a more thorough, complete evaluation of a muscle of interest without the inherent sampling bias of single-voxel MRS or biopsy. Diffusion MRI allows quantification of muscle inflammation and capillary perfusion as well as muscle fiber tracking.

Funding Source

Doris G. Leung receives support from a National Institutes of Health grant (5 K23 NS091379–03).