CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Dental Journal of Advance Studies 2019; 07(01): 001-005
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1685128
Review Article
Bhojia Dental College and Hospital affiliated to Himachal Pradesh University

A Revolution in Dentistry: Epigenetics

Namita Sepolia
1  Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Bhojia Dental College & Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
,
Deepti Garg Jindal
1  Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Bhojia Dental College & Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
,
Sandhya Singh Kaushwaha
1  Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Bhojia Dental College & Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
,
Varun Jindal
2  Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College & Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
,
Monika Negi
3  Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Pontasahib, Himachal Pradesh, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received: 06 December 2018

Accepted after revision: 11 February 2019

Publication Date:
04 April 2019 (online)

  

Abstract

Epigenetics is the study of potentially heritable changes in gene expression that does not involve changes in underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation in both normal and neoplastic development. Epigenetic changes may be inherited and can occur during embryonal development or after birth. Once the change in DNA methylation takes place, following cell division the altered pattern is transferred into daughter cells by the action DNA methyltransferase enzyme, which recognizes hemi-methylated sites and methylates newly synthesized DNA formed during replication. Recently, it has been suggested that aberrant DNA methylation of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands is a common event in odontogenic tumors. Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1,3A,3B has been noted in various odontogenic tumors. Thus, this review aims to study the various epigenetic pathways that are altered in odontogenic tumors.