Incidence, Predictors, and Adverse Outcomes of Extubation Failure in Young Children with Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Observational Study
Background Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving mainstay of therapy in pediatric patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI). Because of the numerous complications and side effects associated with tracheal intubation, it is prudent to remove it as early as possible. Extubation failure and reintubation, however, are also associated with significant risks. Till date, there has been no comprehensive study on extubation failure in pediatric patients less than 5 years with iTBI.
Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in the trauma intensive care unit (TICU) of a tertiary care center. All the children with iTBI, aged 0 to 5 years, on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours, admitted to the TICU were included. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation occurring within 24 hours of extubation. Only the first attempt at extubation was included in the analysis.
Results Pre-extubation paO2/FiO2 ratio < 310 mm Hg is a predictor for extubation failure. Mean base deficit postextubation were found to be 2 ± 0.9 and –0.2 ± 1 (p = 0.00) between success and failure groups, respectively. Similarly, postextubation systolic blood pressure was also high in the failure group than in the success group (113.8 ± 10.4 vs. 100.5 ± 7.4; p = 0.00).
Conclusions The incidence of first attempt extubation failure was 62.5%. Lower values of pre-extubation paO2/FiO2 ratio (ratio < 310 mm Hg) are a predictor for extubation failure. Developing predictive tools and optimizing extubation decisions lead to timely identification of patients at elevated risk of extubation failure.
23 February 2020 (online)
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