CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2020; 14(02): 260-267
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709896
Original Article

Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Mouth Wash on Salivary pH and Interleukin-1β Levels among Smokers

Syed Ameer Hamza
1  Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
,
Arsalan Wahid
2  Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
,
Nadeem Afzal
3  Department of Immunology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
,
Saba Asif
4  Department of Periodontology, University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
,
Mian Farrukh Imran
5  Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
,
Zohaib Khurshid
6  Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
,
Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari
7  Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Objective Smoking induces changes in salivary pH and inflammatory biomarker levels associated with oral diseases. This study examined the effect of alkaline oral rinse to modify this effect of smoking on salivary study parameters.

Materials and Methods A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) on systemically healthy smokers was conducted. A total of 78 smokers, aged 18 to 40 years, were enrolled as per exclusion/inclusion criteria. An alkaline mouthwash was provided to the intervention group and a placebo to control group. Salivary pH and inflammatory biomarker interleukin (IL)-1β levels were evaluated at baseline and at follow-up (14 ± 2 days).

Statistical Analysis Chi-squared test, independaent t-test, and paired t-test were used to observe the changes in parameters among and between groups before and after intervention using SPSS v16 with a significance level of p≤0.050.

Results Sixty eight salivary samples were analyzed. All study parameters of the study sample were statistically insignificant between both intervention and control groups at baseline. pH level was 6.56 ± 0.53 at baseline and 6.62 ± 0.45 at follow-up in the intervention group; respective values for control group were 6.70 ± 0.36 and 6.83 ± 0.44 and the changes were not significant (p≥0.071). IL-1β level was 9.39 ± 10.23 pg/µL at baseline and 5.40 ± 6.62 pg/µL at a follow-up in the intervention group and the change was significant (p = 0.001); respective values for the control group were 10.63 ± 11.50, and 9.33 ± 11.73 and the difference was nonsignificant (p = 0.076).

Conclusion This randomized trial indicated that sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse is effective in decreasing IL-1β levels and increasing salivary pH favorable for prevention of oral diseases.



Publication History

Publication Date:
12 May 2020 (online)

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