CC BY 4.0 · TH Open 2020; 04(04): e288-e299
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718415
Review Article

The Potential Role of Coagulation Factor Xa in the Pathophysiology of COVID-19: A Role for Anticoagulants as Multimodal Therapeutic Agents

Galit H. Frydman
1  Coagulo Medical Technologies, Inc., Auburndale, Massachusetts, United States
2  Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
3  Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
4  Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
,
Jean M. Connors
5  Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Gregory Piazza
6  Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) results in local and systemic activation of inflammation and coagulation. In this review article, we will discuss the potential role of coagulation factor Xa (FXa) in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. FXa, a serine protease, has been shown to play a role in the cleavage of SARS-CoV-1 spike protein (SP), with the inhibition of FXa resulting in the inhibition of viral infectivity. FX is known to be primarily produced in the liver, but it is also expressed by multiple cells types, including alveolar epithelium, cardiac myocytes, and macrophages. Considering that patients with preexisting conditions, including cardiopulmonary disease, are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19, we discuss the potential role of increased levels of FX in these patients, resulting in a potential increased propensity to have a higher infectious rate and viral load, increased activation of coagulation and inflammation, and development of fibrosis. With these observations in mind, we postulate as to the potential therapeutic role of FXa inhibitors as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for high-risk patients with COVID-19.



Publication History

Received: 07 September 2020

Accepted: 08 September 2020

Publication Date:
07 October 2020 (online)

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Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Stuttgart · New York