Surgical Treatment for Asymptomatic Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations in Children: Waiting or Not?Funding This study was funded by Guangzhou Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission (grant number 20191A010022).
Introduction Infection is undoubtedly the most important factor in influencing the timing and surgical strategy of congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) surgery. However, there have been no studies on the optimal timing of surgery for patients based on the probability of infection. The aim of this study was performed to explore the optimal timing of surgery of CPAM in children from the risk of infection.
Materials and Methods The correlation of age distribution and pulmonary infection of 237 children diagnosed by pathology from January 2012 to January 2020 in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. We defined the cases with preoperative computed tomographic findings of infection, pathological findings of large number of neutrophils, tissue cells, and abscess formation as the infection group.
Results The rate of infection in patients less than 2 years old was significantly lower than in patients over 2 years old (11.4% vs. 45.7%, p < 0.001). And the pulmonary lobectomy rate of patients with infection (29.0%) was significantly higher than in noninfected patients (17.2%) and whole patients (36.3%), p = 0.033. Patients with infection lose more blood during surgery (noninfected patients: 81.76 ± 13.14 mL, infected patients: 145.10 ± 25.39 mL, p = 0.027). The univariate analysis revealed that the infection rate of patients over 2 years old was 3.084 times that of patients ≤2 years old (odds ratio [OR]: 3.084, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.196–7.954; p = 0.020). The infection rate of CPAM types III and IV patients is lower than types I and II (OR: 0.531, 95% CI: 0.307–0.920; p = 0.024).
Conclusion In consideration of the high risk of infection, lower minimally invasive surgery rate, an increased rate of pulmonary lobectomy, and more blood loss in patients over 2 years old, our study also supports early surgical treatment. Therefore, we suggest that for asymptomatic patients with CPAM I and CPAM II, surgical treatment should be performed when they are less than 2 years old, providing more options for surgical strategies and monitoring of CPAM patients.
Keywordscongenital pulmonary airway malformations - asymptomatic patients - surgical treatment - pulmonary infection
J.Z. and J.L. conceptualized the study and will stand as guarantors. L.L. and W.L. did the literature search. J.Z., J.T., X.Y., and G.Y. collected the data and helped in data analysis. J.Z. drafted the manuscript which underwent a critical appraisal by L.L., W.L., and J.L. All the authors approved the final manuscript and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Eingereicht: 29. Mai 2020
Angenommen: 21. September 2020
28. Februar 2021 (online)
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