Occipitoatlantoaxial Malformation in a Dog Treated with a Custom-Made ImplantFunding Fitzpatrick Referrals Ltd. provided support in the form of salaries and materials for the authors. No third-party funding or support was received.
Background Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (OAAM) is reported rarely in dogs and few treatment options are described. The congenital condition is thought to be associated with a proatlas re-segmentation failure resulting in malformation and malalignment of the craniovertebral junction which can result in C1 to 5 myelopathic signs.
Methods Customized three-dimensional printed locking plate with trajectory screw implantation points for the stabilization of the atlantoaxial joint in a dog with OAAM. The dog was evaluated at time points 0, 2, 6 and 9 months to determine clinical outcome, degree of fusion, implant positioning and subsidence.
Results New bone formation was noted 9 months after surgery, but complete fusion remained absent, although no implant failure occurred. Clinically, the dog made a good recovery and was able to exercise normally 9 months after surgery. The only residual deficit was a subtle left-sided cervical torticollis.
Clinical Significance This report illustrates a management option and outcome of a dog treated with OAAM. Collaboration between clinicians and engineers provides a new dimension of care for patients with vertebral malformations.
Keywordsthree-dimensional printed locking plate - patient-specific implant design - cervical vertebral malformation - canine occipitoatlantoaxial malformation
All authors contributed to the concept of the study. C. Rotter was responsible for the acquisition of data. Data analysis and interpretation was performed by C. Rotter and N.F. All authors drafted, revised and approved of the submitted manuscript.
Preliminary results were presented as a poster and abstract at the annual congress of the European Society of Veterinary Neurology/European College of Veterinary Neurology (ESVN-ECVN), Wroclaw, Poland, 13–14 September 2019.
Received: 14 April 2020
Accepted: 01 October 2020
23 November 2020 (online)
© 2020. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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