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Late Abdominal Reoperations after Surgery for Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation
Introduction The aim of this study was retrospective assessment of late major reoperations after surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in neonates.
Materials and Methods Appropriate ethical consent was obtained. Data collection was by review of hospital records of 165 successive prematures who underwent surgery for NEC (n = 99) or SIP (n = 66) from 1986 to 2019. Outcome measures were late major abdominal surgeries or endoscopies that occurred after the primary surgical treatment, closure of enterostomies, and weaning from parenteral nutrition (PN). We assessed also risk factors for late abdominal surgeries.
Results Hundred and twenty-six (76%) patients (NEC, n = 70, 71% and in SIP, n = 56, 85%) survived. Median follow-up was 13 (interquartile range: 5.9–23) years. Nineteen (15%) patients underwent late abdominal surgery with 0% mortality. Most common was surgery for small bowel obstruction (SBO) in 12(9.5%) patients (NEC, n = 5; 7.0%, SIP, n = 7; 13%, p = 0.36) with 10-year cumulative risk of 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5–14). Long duration of PN and development of intestinal failure associated cholestasis (IFAC) increased the risk of SBO surgery, relative risk: 1.0–3.2 (95% CI: 1.0–9.1), p = 0.02–0.03. Other surgeries included serial transverse enteroplasty (NEC, n = 2), incisional hernia repair (n = 3), cholecystectomy (n = 1), and ovarian torsion (n = 1). Twenty (29%) NEC and four (7%) SIP patients required endoscopic assessment of postoperative symptoms (p = 0.003).
Conclusion Late abdominal reoperations occurred in 15% of patients with NEC and SIP with nil mortality. SBO was the main indication. Risk of SBO was similar between NEC and SIP. Long PN and IFAC increased the risk of SBO.
Keywordsnecrotizing enterocolitis - spontaneous intestinal perforation - reoperations - small bowel obstruction
Received: 10 July 2020
Accepted: 11 November 2020
13 January 2021 (online)
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