Keep Moving Forward: Health Informatics and Information Management beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Objectives: To identify gaps and challenges in health informatics and health information management during the COVID-19 pandemic. To describe solutions and offer recommendations that can address the identified gaps and challenges.
Methods: A literature review of relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature published from January 2020 to December 2020 was conducted to inform the paper.
Results: The literature revealed several themes regarding health information management and health informatics challenges and gaps: information systems and information technology infrastructure; data collection, quality, and standardization; and information governance and use. These challenges and gaps were often driven by public policy and funding constraints.
Conclusions: COVID-19 exposed complexities related to responding to a world-wide, fast moving, quickly spreading novel virus. Longstanding gaps and ongoing challenges in the local, national, and global health and public health information systems and data infrastructure must be addressed before we are faced with another global pandemic.
KeywordsHealth information management - public health - information governance - health information system - informatics - SARS-COV-2 - coronavirus - COVID-19
03. September 2021 (online)
© 2021. IMIA and Thieme. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta Biomed 2020 Mar 19 91 (01) 157-60
- 2 COVID-19 Map - Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. 2021 [cited 2021 March 7]. Available from: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
- 3 Melvin SC, Wiggins C, Burse N, Thompson E, Monger M. The Role of Public Health in COVID-19 Emergency Response Efforts from a Rural Health Perspective. Prev Chronic Dis 2020; 17: 200256
- 4 World Health Organization. WHO Releases Guidelines to Help Countries Maintain Essential Health Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2020. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-03-2020-who-releases-guidelines-to-help-countries-maintain-essential-health-services-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
- 5 World Health Organization. Policy Brief - Strengthening the Health System Response to COVID-19: Recommendations for the WHO European Region. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2020. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/436350/strengthening-health-system-response-COVID-19.pdf?ua=1
- 6 Chowdhury AZ, Jomo KS. Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Developing Countries: Lessons from Selected Countries of the Global South. Development (Rome) 2020 Nov 10. 1-10
- 7 Rasul G. A Framework for Improving Policy Priorities in Managing COVID-19 Challenges in Developing Countries. Front Public Health 2020 Oct 14 8: 589681
- 8 Reisman M. EHRs: The Challenge of Making Electronic Data Usable and Interoperable. P T 2017 Sep 42 (09) 572-5
- 9 Shaywitz D. Learning From COVID-19: The Lessons for Real World Data - TimmermanReport.com [Internet]. Timmerman Report; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://timmermanreport.com/2020/10/learning-from-covid-19-the-lessons-for-real-world-data/
- 10 Gibson CJ, Dixon BE, Abrams K. Convergent evolution of health information management and health informatics: a perspective on the future of information professionals in health care. Appl Clin Inform 2015 Mar 18 6 (01) 163-84
- 11 AMIA. The Science of Informatics [Internet]. [cited 2021 April 17]. Available from: https://www.amia.org/about-amia/science-informatics
- 12 Hersh W. A stimulus to define informatics and health information technology. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2009; 9: 24 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-9-24
- 13 Madhavan S, Bastarache L, Brown JS, Butte AJ, Dorr DA, Embi PJ. et al. Use of electronic health records to support a public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: a perspective from 15 academic medical centers. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Feb 15 28 (02) 393-401
- 14 Romanelli RJ, Azar KMJ, Sudat S, Hung D, Frosch DL, Pressman AR. Learning Health System in Crisis: Lessons From the COVID-19 Pandemic. Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Feb 5 (01) 171-6 Epub 2020 Oct 29.
- 15 Lal A, Ashworth HC, Dada S, Hoemeke L, Tambo E. Optimizing Pandemic Preparedness and Response Through Health Information Systems: Lessons Learned From Ebola to COVID-19. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Oct 2. 1-8 . Epub ahead of print.
- 16 OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19) The territorial impact of COVID-19: Managing the crisis across levels of government [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 April 13]. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/the-territorial-impact-of-covid-19-managing-the-crisis-across-levels-of-government-d3e314e1/
- 17 National Governors Association and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers. Roadmap to Recovery: A Public Health Guide for Governors [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 April 13]. Available from: https://www.nga.org/center/publications/roadmap-to-recovery/
- 18 Data for Decision-Making: Responsible Management of Data During COVID-19 and Beyond, 116th United States Congress. 2020 (Testimony of Janet Hamilton).
- 19 US Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Information for health: a strategy for building the national health information infrastructure. Published November 28, 2016 [cited 2021 April 14]. Available from: https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/information-health-strategy-building-national-health-information-infrastructure
- 20 Hagan C, Holubowich E, Criss T. Driving Public Health in the Fast Lane. CSTE.org 2020. [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://resources.cste.org/data-superhighway/mobile/index.html
- 21 Miri A, O’Neill D. Accelerating Data Infrastructure For COVID-19 Surveillance and Management | Health Affairs Blog [Internet]. Healthaffairs.org. 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200413.644614/full/
- 22 Sittig DF, Singh H. COVID-19 and the Need for a National Health Information Technology Infrastructure. JAMA 2020 Jun 16 323 (023) 2373-4
- 23 Executive Order on Ensuring a Data-Driven Response to COVID-19 and Future High-Consequence Public Health Threats | The White House [Internet]. The White House. 2021 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/01/21/executive-order-ensuring-a-data-driven-response-to-covid-19-and-future-high-consequence-public-health-threats/
- 24 Executive Order on National Strategy for the COVID-19 Response and Pandemic Preparedness [Internet]. Whitehouse.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/National-Strategy-for-the-COVID-19-Response-and-Pandemic-Preparedness.pdf
- 25 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES) Act PL 116-136. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 2020
- 26 Phelan A, Katz R. Publications - Center for Global Health Science and Security [Internet]. Georgetown University Center for Global Health Science and Security. 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://ghss.georgetown.edu/work/publications/
- 27 Medeiros D, Chien M. Address COVID-19 Preparedness and Response in Your Public Health Data and Analytics Strategy [Internet]. Gartner; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.gartner.com/en/documents/3982198/address-covid-19-preparedness-and-response-in-your-publi
- 28 ONC Health IT Certification Program Overview. [Internet]. Healthit.gov; 2020 [cited 2021 April 13]. Available from: https://www.healthit.gov/sites/default/files/PUBLICHealthITCertificationProgramOverview.pdf
- 29 State Public Health | ASTHO [Internet]. Astho.org; 2021 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://www.astho.org/StatePublicHealth/Improving-Public-Health-Surveillance-Through-Interoperability-Data-Standards-Legislation/01-24-19/
- 30 Office of Public Health Scientific Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Surveillance: Preparing for the Future. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ; September 2018.
- 31 Data Modernization Initiative | CDC [Internet]. cdc.gov; 2020 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/surveillance-data-strategies/dmi-investments.html
- 32 Holmgren AJ, Apathy NC, Adler-Milstein J. Barriers to hospital electronic public health reporting and implications for the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 Aug 1 27 (08) 1306-9
- 33 Holmgren AJ, Apathy NC, Adler-Milstein J. Barriers to hospital electronic public health reporting and implications for the COVID-19 pandemic: the authors’ reply. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 Nov 1 27 (011) 1823-4
- 34 CDC Data Modernization Initiative: A Roadmap of Activities and Expected Outcomes [Internet]. cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/pdfs/318212-A_DMI_LogicModel_July23b-508.pdf
- 35 Pryor R, Atkinson C, Cooper K, Doll M, Godbout E, Stevens MP. et al. The electronic medical record and COVID-19: Is it up to the challenge?. Am J Infect Control 2020 Aug 48 (08) 966-7 Epub 2020 May 12.
- 36 Public Health Data Modernization: Listening Session on Real-World Testing of 21st Century Cures Act Requirements. [Internet]. Cdc.gov; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/pdfs/20_319521-D_DataMod-Initiative_901420.pdf
- 37 Electronic Test Orders and Results (ETOR): A fundamental capability for public health laboratories. [Internet]. Aphl.org; 2019 [cited 2021 April 13]. Available from: https://www.aphl.org/aboutAPHL/publications/Documents/INFO-2019-May-ETOR-high-level.pdf
- 38 Dzau VJ, Balatbat C. Strategy, coordinated implementation, and sustainable financing needed for COVID-19 innovations. Lancet 2020 Nov 7 396 (10261): 1469-71
- 39 Hick JL, Biddinger PD. Novel Coronavirus and Old Lessons - Preparing the Health System for the Pandemic. N Engl J Med 2020 May 14 382 (020) e55 . Epub 2020 Mar 25.
- 40 Gottlieb S, Rivers C, McClellan M, Silvis L, Watson C. National coronavirus response: A road map to reopening. American Enterprise Institute. 2020 . [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.aei.org/research-products/report/national-coronavirus-response-a-road-map-to-reopening/
- 41 Allain-Duprést D, Chatry I, Kornprobst A, Michalun M. The territorial impact of COVID-19: Managing the crisis across levels of government [Internet]. Oecd.org; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/the-territorial-impact-of-covid-19-managing-the-crisis-across-levels-of-government-d3e314e1/
- 42 Sylvestre E, Thuny RM, Cecilia-Joseph E, Gueye P, Chabartier C, Brouste Y. et al. Health informatics support for outbreak management: How to respond without an electronic health record?. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 Nov 1 27 (011) 1828-9
- 43 Lloyd-Sherlock PG, Kalache A, McKee M, Derbyshire J, Geffen L, Casas FG. WHO must prioritise the needs of older people in its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ 2020 Mar 23;368:m1164 Erratum in: BMJ. 2020 Mar 31; 368: m1285
- 44 Kandel N, Chungong S, Omaar A, Xing J. Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries. Lancet 2020 Mar 28; 395(10229):1047–53. Epub 2020 Mar 18
- 45 Shaw R, Kim YK, Hua J. Governance, technology and citizen behavior in pandemic: Lessons from COVID-19 in East Asia. Progress in Disaster Science 2020 6: 100090
- 46 Nyatema AS. Bridging the gap in the Health Management Information System in the context of a changing health sector. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2010;10(36)
- 47 Lee SM, Lee D. Lessons Learned from Battling COVID-19: The Korean Experience. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Oct 16 17 (20) 7548
- 48 Moatti JP. The French response to COVID-19: intrinsic difficulties at the interface of science, public health, and policy. Lancet Public Health 2020; 5 (05) e255
- 49 Shokoohi M, Osooli M, Stranges S. COVID-19 Pandemic: What Can the West Learn from the East?. Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Oct 1 9 (10) 436-8
- 50 He R, Zhang J, Mao Y, Degomme O, Zhang WH. Preparedness and Responses Faced during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Belgium: An Observational Study and Using the National Open Data. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Oct 30 17 (021) 7985
- 51 Dighe A, Cattarino L, Cuomo-Dannenburg G, Skarp J, Imai N, Bhatia S. et al. Response to COVID-19 in South Korea and implications for lifting stringent interventions. BMC Med 2020 Oct 9 18 (01) 321
- 52 Brownson RC, Burke TA, Colditz GA, Samet JA. Reimagining Public Health in the Aftermath of a Pandemic. Am J Public Health 2020 Nov 110 (011) 1605-10 . Epub 2020 Aug 20.
- 53 Bollyky T, Patrick S. The U.S. Must Learn From COVID-19 to Prevent the Next Disaster [Internet]. Council on Foreign Relations. 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.cfr.org/report/pandemic-preparedness-lessons-COVID-19/
- 54 Emergency use ICD codes for COVID-19 disease outbreak [Internet]. Who.int; 2021 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://www.who.int/classifications/classification-of-diseases/emergency-use-icd-codes-for-covid-19-disease-outbreak
- 55 New ICD Code for Coronavirus. [Internet]. Cdc.gov; 2020 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd/Announcement-New-ICD-code-for-coronavirus-3-18-2020.pdf
- 56 COVID-19 CPT coding and guidance [Internet]. American Medical Association; 2021 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://www.ama-assn.org/practice-management/cpt/covid-19-cpt-coding-and-guidance
- 57 Guidance for mapping to SARS-CoV-2 LOINC terms - LOINC [Internet]. LOINC; 2020 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://loinc.org/sars-coronavirus-2/
- 58 Maxmen A. Why the United States is having a coronavirus data crisis [Internet]. Nature.com; 2020 [cited 2021 March 7]. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02478-z
- 59 Peek N, Sujan M, Scott P. Digital health and care in pandemic times: impact of COVID-19. BMJ Health Care Inform 2020; 27: e100166
- 60 Lumpkin J, Wiesenthal A. A Digital Bridge To Real-Time COVID-19 Data | Health Affairs Blog [Internet]. Healthaffairs.org; 2020 [cited 2021 March 7]. Available from: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200729.517619/full
- 61 Kozlakidis Z, Abduljawad J, Al Khathaami AM, Schaper L, Stelling J. Global health and data-driven policies for emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks. Lancet Glob Health 2020 Nov 8 (011) e1361-e1363 . Epub 2020 Aug 10
- 62 Pyo S, Reggi L, Martin E. The Potential Role of Open Data In Mitigating The COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges And Opportunities | Health Affairs Blog [Internet]. Healthaffairs.org; 2020 [cited 2021 March 7]. Available from: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20201029.94898/full/
- 63 Wu J, Wang J, Nicholas S, Maitland E, Fan Q. Application of Big Data Technology for COVID-19 Prevention and Control in China: Lessons and Recommendations. J Med Internet Res 2020; 22 (010) e21980 . Published 2020 Oct 9.
- 64 Davenport T, Godfrey A, Redmond T. 2021 To Fight Pandemics, We Need Better Data. [Internet]. MIT Sloan Management Review; 2021 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/to-fight-pandemics-we-need-better-data/
- 65 Hannigan A, Villarroel N, Roura M, LeMaster J, Basogomba A, Bradley C. et al. Ethnicity recording in health and social care data collections in Ireland: where and how is it measured and what is it used for?. Int J Equity Health 2019 Dec 31 19 (01) 2
- 66 Schulte F. As Coronavirus Strikes, Crucial Data In Electronic Health Records Hard To Harvest [Internet]. Kaiser Health News. 2021 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://khn.org/news/as-coronavirus-strikes-crucial-data-in-electronic-health-records-hard-to-harvest/
- 67 Artiga S, Corallo B, Pham O. Racial Disparities in COVID-19: Key Findings from Available Data and Analysis - Issue Brief [Internet]. KFF.org. 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.kff.org/report-section/racial-disparities-in-covid-19-key-findings-from-available-data-and-analysis-issue-brief/
- 68 Mostashari M, McClellan M. Data interoperability and exchange to support COVID-19 containment. [Internet]. Durham, NC: Duke Margolis Center for Health Policy; 2020. . Available from: https://healthpolicy.duke.edu/publications/data-interoperability-and-exchange-support-covid-19-containment
- 69 Kliff S, Sanger-Katz M. Bottleneck for U.S. Coronavirus Response: The Fax Machine [Internet]. Nytimes.com. 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/13/upshot/coronavirus-response-fax-machines.html
- 70 Moscovitch B, Halamka JD, Grannis S. Better patient identification could help fight the coronavirus. NPJ Digit Med 2020 Jun 1 3: 83 . eCollection 2020.
- 71 Woloshin S, Patel N, Kesselheim AS. False Negative Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Infection - Challenges and Implications. N Engl J Med 2020 Aug 6 383 (06) e38 . Epub 2020 Jun 5.
- 72 Institute of Medicine. For the Public's Health: Investing in a Healthier Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2021
- 73 DeSalvo KB, Wang YC, Harris A, Auerbach J, Koo D, O’Carroll P. Public Health 3.0: A Call to Action for Public Health to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century. Prev Chronic Dis 2017 Sep 7 14: E78
- 74 The Impact of Chronic Underfunding on America's Public Health System: Trends, Risks, and Recommendations [Internet]. Tfah.org; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.tfah.org/report-details/publichealthfunding2020/
- 75 Renda A, Castro R. Toward stronger EU governance of health threats after the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur J Risk Regul 2020; 1-10
- 76 Anderson J, Rainie L. Concerns about democracy in the digital age [Internet]. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech; 2020 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2020/02/21/concerns-about-democracy-in-the-digital-age/
- 77 Contact Tracing in the Context of COVID-19. World Health Organization. Who.int; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/contact-tracing-in-the-context-of-covid-19
- 78 Use of Surveillance to Fight Coronavirus Raises Concerns about Government Power after Pandemic Ends. [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2021 April 16]. Available from: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/27/coronavirus-surveillance-used-by-governments-to-fight-pandemic-privacy-concerns.html
- 79 Plasek JM, Tang C, Zhu Y, Huang Y, Bates DW. Following data as it crosses borders during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020; 27 (07) 1139-41
- 80 Howard N, Ermilio J. EHR Interoperability: Public Health Benefits & Privacy Considerations [Internet]. 2020 . [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.covingtondigitalhealth.com/2020/07/ehr-interoperability-public-health-benefits-privacy-considerations/
- 81 Ekong I, Chukwu E, Chukwu M. COVID-19 Mobile Positioning Data Contact Tracing and Patient Privacy Regulations: Exploratory Search of Global Response Strategies and the Use of Digital Tools in Nigeria. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 Apr 27 8 (04) e19139
- 82 Braithwaite I, Callender T, Bullock M, Aldridge RW. Automated and partly automated contact tracing: a systematic review to inform the control of COVID-19. Lancet Digit Health 2020 Nov 2 (011) e607-e621 . Epub 2020 Aug 19
- 83 Jung G, Lee H, Kim A, Lee U. Too Much Information: Assessing Privacy Risks of Contact Trace Data Disclosure on People With COVID-19 in South Korea. Front Public Health. 2020; 8: 305 . Published 2020 Jun 18.
- 84 Gellman R, Dixon P. COVID-19 and HIPAA: HHS's Troubled Approach to Waiving Privacy and Security Rules for the Pandemic | World Privacy Forum [Internet]. Worldprivacyforum.org; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.worldprivacyforum.org/2020/09/covid-19-and-hipaa/
- 85 Marquez B, Pascual N, Gaite D. Protecting patients’ privacy in a pandemic: latest guidance from the Philippines | Lexology [Internet]. Lexology.com; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=f6dfc332-0e11-4010-aaf4-597919b86836
- 86 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions: Contact Tracing [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021 [cited 2021 April 17]. Available from: https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fphp%2Fcontact-tracing-faq.html#Contact-Tracing
- 87 Biswas S, Ghosh P, Chakraborty D, Chatterjee A, Dutta S, Saha MK. COVID-19 Infection: Data Gaps for Diagnostic Laboratory Preparedness and Tasks on Hand. Viral Immunol 2020 Dec 1. Epub ahead of print.
- 88 Brissette I, Gelberg KH, Grey AJ. The effect of message type on physician compliance with disease reporting requirements. Public Health Rep 2006; 121 (06) 703-9
- 89 Sookman B. AI And Contact Tracing: How to Protect Privacy While Fighting The COVID-19 Pandemic. [Internet]. 2020 . Macdonaldlaurier.ca. Available at: https://macdonaldlaurier.ca/files/pdf/20200416_COVID-Privacy_Sookman_COM
- 90 Ahmed K, Bukhari MA, Mlanda T, Kimenyi JP, Wallace P, Okot Lukoya C. et al. Novel Approach to Support Rapid Data Collection, Management, and Visualization During the COVID-19 Outbreak Response in the World Health Organization African Region: Development of a Data Summarization and Visualization Tool. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020 Oct 14 6 (04) e20355
- 91 Kringos D, Carinci F, Barbazza E, Bos V, Gilmore K, Groene O. et al. HealthPros Network. Managing COVID-19 within and across health systems: why we need performance intelligence to coordinate a global response. Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Jul 14 18 (01) 80
- 92 Ethical considerations to guide the use of digital proximity tracking technologies for COVID-19 contact tracing [Internet]. World Health Organization. Who.int; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Ethics_Contact_tracing_apps-2020.1
- 93 COVID-19 and Human Rights: We are All in This Together [Internet]. United Nations Sustainable Development Group. Unsdg.un.org; 2020 [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-04/COVID-19-and-Human-Rights.pdf
- 94 Whaiduzzaman M, Hossain MR, Shovon AR, Roy S, Laszka A, Buyya R. et al. A Privacy-Preserving Mobile and Fog Computing Framework to Trace and Prevent COVID-19 Community Transmission. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2020 Dec 24 (012) 3564-75 . Epub 2020 Dec 4.
- 95 Kim W, Lee H, Chung YD. Safe contact tracing for COVID-19: A method without privacy breach using functional encryption techniques based-on spatio-temporal trajectory data. PLoS One 2020 Dec 11 15 (012) e0242758
- 96 Persad G, Emanuel EJ. The Ethics of COVID-19 Immunity-Based Licenses (“Immunity Passports”). JAMA 2020; 323 (022) 2241-2
- 97 Bassan S. Data privacy considerations for telehealth consumers amid COVID-19. J Law Biosci 2020; 7 (01) lsaa075
- 98 LoTempio J, Spencer D, Yarvitz R, Vilain A, Vilain E, Déelot E. We Can Do Better: Lessons Learned on Data Sharing in COVID-19 Pandemic Can Inform Future Outbreak Preparedness and Response. Science & Diplomacy 2020;9(2) [cited 2021 April 1]. Available from: https://www.sciencediplomacy.org/article/2020/we-can-do-betterlessons-learned-data-sharing-in-covid-19-pandemic-can-inform-future
- 99 Chin S, Chin C. To mitigate the costs of future pandemics, establish a common data space. [Internet]. Brookings; 2021 [cited 2021 March 22]. Available from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2020/11/02/to-mitigate-the-costs-of-future-pandemics-establish-a-common-data-space/
- 100 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A European Strategy for Data. 2020 Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/communication-european-strategy-data-19feb2020_en.pdf
- 101 McClellan M, Mostashari F, Barker T. Health care payment to support COVID-19 detection and containment [Internet]. Durham, NC: Duke Margolis Center for Health Policy; 2020. Available from: https://healthpolicy.duke.edu/sites/default/files/2020-06/health_care_payment_to_support_covid-19_detection_and_containment_final.pdf
- 102 10 infectious diseases that could be the next pandemic [Internet]. Gavi.org; 2020 [cited 2021 March 7]. Available from: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/10-infectious-diseases-could-be-next-pandemic