Journal of Pediatric Neurology
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727260
Review Article

SCN1A and Its Related Epileptic Phenotypes

Federica Sullo
1  Pediatrics Postgraduate Residency Program, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Elisa Pasquetti
1  Pediatrics Postgraduate Residency Program, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Francesca Patanè
1  Pediatrics Postgraduate Residency Program, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Manuela Lo Bianco
1  Pediatrics Postgraduate Residency Program, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Simona D. Marino
2  Unit of Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency, University Hospital “Policlinico Rodolico-San Marco,” Catania, Italy
,
Agata Polizzi
3  Chair of Pediatrics, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Raffaele Falsaperla
2  Unit of Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency, University Hospital “Policlinico Rodolico-San Marco,” Catania, Italy
4  Unit of Neonatal Intensive Care and Neonatology, University Hospital “Policlinico Rodolico-San Marco,” Catania, Italy
,
Martino Ruggieri
1  Pediatrics Postgraduate Residency Program, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Antonio Zanghì
5  Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technology “G.F. Ingrassia,” University of Catania, Catania, Italy
,
Andrea D. Praticò
6  Unit of Rare Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, with a lifetime incidence of 1 in 26. Approximately two-thirds of epilepsy has a substantial genetic component in its etiology. As a result, simultaneous screening for mutations in multiple genes and performing whole exome sequencing (WES) are becoming very frequent in the clinical evaluation of children with epilepsy. In this setting, mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN) α-subunit genes are the most commonly identified cause of epilepsy, with sodium channel genes (i.e., SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN8A) being the most frequently identified causative genes. SCN1A mutations result in a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes ranging from simple febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, a severe epileptic encephalopathy. In case of mutation of SCN1A, it is also possible to observe behavioral alterations, such as impulsivity, inattentiveness, and distractibility, which can be framed in an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) like phenotype. Despite more than 1,200 SCN1A mutations being reported, it is not possible to assess a clear phenotype–genotype correlations. Treatment remains a challenge and seizure control is often partial and transitory.



Publication History

Received: 06 September 2020

Accepted: 22 February 2021

Publication Date:
13 April 2021 (online)

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