CC BY 4.0 · TH Open 2021; 05(02): e155-e162
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728790
Original Article

Thrombin–Fibrinogen In Vitro Flow Model of Thrombus Growth in Cerebral Aneurysms

Malebogo N. Ngoepe
1  Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
2  Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, Wallenberg Research Centre, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
,
3  Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
,
Ilunga J. Tshimanga
4  Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
,
Zahra Shaikh
4  Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
,
Yiannis Ventikos
5  Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom
,
Wei Hua Ho
4  Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
6  School of Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
› Author Affiliations
Funding National Research Foundation South Africa: NFSG180502325333.

Abstract

Cerebral aneurysms are balloon-like structures that develop on weakened areas of cerebral artery walls, with a significant risk of rupture. Thrombi formation is closely associated with cerebral aneurysms and has been observed both before and after intervention, leading to a wide variability of outcomes in patients with the condition. The attempt to manage the outcomes has led to the development of various computational models of cerebral aneurysm thrombosis. In the current study, we developed a simplified thrombin–fibrinogen flow system, based on commercially available purified human-derived plasma proteins, which enables thrombus growth and tracking in an idealized cerebral aneurysm geometry. A three-dimensional printed geometry of an idealized cerebral aneurysm and parent vessel configuration was developed. An unexpected outcome was that this phantom-based flow model allowed us to track clot growth over a period of time, by using optical imaging to record the progression of the growing clot into the flow field. Image processing techniques were subsequently used to extract important quantitative metrics from the imaging dataset, such as end point intracranial thrombus volume. The model clearly demonstrates that clot formation, in cerebral aneurysms, is a complex interplay between mechanics and biochemistry. This system is beneficial for verifying computational models of cerebral aneurysm thrombosis, particularly those focusing on initial angiographic occlusion outcomes, and will also assist manufacturers in optimizing interventional device designs.



Publication History

Received: 18 June 2020

Accepted: 01 February 2021

Publication Date:
12 May 2021 (online)

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany