Homeopathy
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729562
Original Research Article

Bioresilience to Mercury Chloride of the Brine Shrimp Artemia Salina after Treatment with Homeopathic Mercurius Corrosivus

Andreia Adelaide G. Pinto
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Mirian Y. de Oliveira Nagai
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Ednar Nascimento Coimbra
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Suham Nowrooz Mohammad
2  IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Jefferson Souza Silva
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Adalberto Von Ancken
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Sandra Augusta G. Pinto
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Michelle Sanchez Aguiar
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Maristela Dutra-Correa
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Marcos Antonio Hortellani
2  IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Adriana Miranda
2  IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Jorge Eduardo de Souza Sarkis
2  IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Giovani Bravin Peres
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Maria Martha Bernardi
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Steven John Cartwright
3  DiagnOx Laboratory, Cherwell Innovation Centre, Upper Heyford, Oxon, United Kingdom
,
Leoni Villano Bonamin
1  Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Introduction Finding solutions to mitigate the impact of pollution on living systems is a matter of great interest. Homeopathic preparations of toxic substances have been described in the literature as attenuation factors for intoxication. Herein, an experimental study using Artemia salina and mercury chloride was developed as a model to identify aspects related to bioresilience.

Aims The aim of the study was to describe the effects of homeopathic Mercurius corrosivus (MC) on Artemia salina cysts hatching and on mercury bioavailability.

MethodsArtemia salina cysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC potencies (6cH, 30cH, and 200cH) were prepared in sterile purified water and poured into artificial sea water. Different controls were used (non-challenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatching. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MC biological activity.

Results Significant delay (p < 0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed only after treatment with MC 30cH, compared with controls. This result was associated with an increase of THg concentration in water (p = 0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p < 0.0001) in suspended micraggregates, suggesting changes in mercury bioavailability. A specific interaction of MC 30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p = 0.0017) was found.

Conclusion Changes in hatching rate and possible changes in Hg bioavailability are postulated as protective effects of MC 30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its natural bioresilience processes.

Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 16 November 2020

Accepted: 27 January 2021

Publication Date:
02 September 2021 (online)

© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany