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Application of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis Scoring System in Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Patients with Acute Leukemias
Background Coagulation abnormalities are common in acute leukemia (AL) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) frequently complicates the onset of AL.
Aim To determine the prevalence of overt DIC in AL using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) scoring system.
Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was performed on 57 newly diagnosed or relapsed cases of AL. Detailed clinical history and coagulation profile of the patients were evaluated. Diagnosis of overt and nonovert DIC was established using the ISTH scoring system and results tabulated.
Observations A total of 57 patients with AL participated in the study, including 31 (54.39%) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 26 (45.61%) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In total, 18 of 57 patients (31.58%) with AL fulfilled the criteria of overt DIC according to the ISTH scoring system, including 10 (32.25%) patients with ALL and 8 (30.76%) patients with AML. The highest prevalence of DIC was seen in the M3 subtype among AML and the L1 subtype among ALL, respectively. The mean ISTH score in patients of overt DIC in ALL and AML patients was 5.1 and 5, respectively. Abnormalities in platelet count and D-dimer levels were the most useful parameters in diagnosing overt DIC and the difference between overt DIC and nonovert DIC groups was highly significant.
Conclusions Overt DIC was observed in approximately one-third of patients with AL. Prevalence of overt DIC was found to be comparable in patients with ALL and AML. Mean platelet count and D-dimer levels were the most useful parameters in detecting overt DIC.
24 November 2021 (online)
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