Semin Thromb Hemost
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1733961
Review Article

New Insights in Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Patients with Primary Brain Cancer: A Systematic Review

Anne Winther-Larsen
1  Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
,
Birgitte Sandfeld-Paulsen
1  Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
,
Anne-Mette Hvas
1  Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
2  Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Patients with primary brain tumors have a high incidence of thrombosis and hemorrhage. The underlying mechanism is believed to be derangement of their hemostatic system. To get nearer a clarification of this, we aimed to systematically review the existing literature regarding primary and secondary hemostasis as well as fibrinolysis in patients with primary brain tumor. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched on December 15, 2020, without time restrictions. Studies were included if they evaluated at least one blood coagulation and/or fibrinolysis parameter in patients with primary brain cancer. In total, 26 articles including 3,288 patients were included. Overall, increased activity of secondary hemostasis was observed as increased prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and endogenous thrombin generation levels were found in glioma patients compared with controls. Furthermore, data showed a state of hypofibrinolysis with increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and prolonged clot lysis time in glioma patients. In contrast, no consistent increase in the primary hemostasis was identified; however, data suggested that increased sP-selectin could be a biomarker of increased venous thromboembolism risk and that increased platelet count may be prognostic for survival. Lastly, data indicated that fibrinogen and D-dimer could hold prognostic value. In conclusion, this review indicates that an increased activity of secondary hemostasis and impaired fibrinolysis could be important players in the pathogeneses behind the high risk of thromboembolisms observed in brain cancer patients. Thus, long-term thromboprophylaxis may be beneficial and additional studies addressing this issue are wanted.

Supplementary Material



Publication History

Publication Date:
08 October 2021 (online)

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