CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU 2023; 13(01): 083-089
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1749179
Original Article

Effectiveness of Game-Based Learning on Anxiety and Postoperative Self-Efficacy among Children Undergoing Surgery

M. Sofia
1   Yenepoya Nursing College, Yenepoya (deemed to be) University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
Priya Reshma Aranha
2   Department of Child Health Nursing, Yenepoya Nursing College, Yenepoya (deemed to be) University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations
Sources of Support Nil.


Background Play is an integral part of a child's life that could be effectively implemented for hospitalized children as well. It plays an important role in alleviating the psychological burden and enhancing self-efficacy of children undergoing surgery. Children benefit from play or games because they enjoy learning through them. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of game-based learning on anxiety and postoperative self-efficacy among children undergoing surgery.

Materials and Methods Using nonprobability purposive sampling technique, 80 school-age children undergoing surgery were selected. Children in the interventional group received game-based learning, whereas those in the control group received routine care. A numeric 0 to 10 state anxiety scale and a self-efficacy scale were used for assessing anxiety and postoperative self-efficacy of children. The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results Mann–Whitney U test showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the mean pre- and posttests scores of anxiety in intervention group. Comparison of posttests anxiety scores between the groups also showed a statistical significance (p < 0.05). When compared self-efficacy scores within intervention and control groups, Wilcoxon signed-rank test value was significant (p < 0.05). Whereas between groups comparison the Mann–Whitney U test value was significant (p < 0.05) at 24 and 48 hours after surgery.

Conclusion The study concluded that game-based learning is effective in maintaining adequate postoperative self-efficacy and reducing the anxiety among the children undergoing surgery.


The authors assure that the manuscript has not been submitted to any other journal for publication NOR it has been presented earlier elsewhere.

The Institutional Ethics Committee has approved this project. (Protocol No: YEC 2/ 460).

Publication History

Article published online:
08 June 2022

© 2022. Nitte (Deemed to be University). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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