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Prevalence and Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric Population—A Study from Central India
Introduction Prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is variable depending on the region and setting of study ranging from 0.8 to 6/1,000. Age of presentation depends on types of CHD and its severity. Burden of CHD is not known in this tribal belt of Central India. Main objective of this study was to find out prevalence of CHD in children. We have also studied the pattern and age of presentation of various types of CHDs.
Methods This retrospective observational study was conducted at tertiary care teaching institute in tribal belt of Central India. Children aged 0 to 15 years reported to pediatric outpatient department (OPD) were included. CHD was confirmed by echocardiography in suspected cases. Prevalence rate was calculated as number of CHDs per 1,000 OPD patients. Pattern of CHD was categorized as per standard guidelines and age-wise presentations of various types of CHD were studied.
Results The prevalence rate of CHD in our study population was 27.7/1,000, which is high when compared with most of the other hospital-based studies. Most of the patients, 60.36 and 83.26% were detected before the age of 1 year and 5 years, respectively. All critical CHD cases were detected in early infancy.
Conclusion There is a high burden of CHD seen in this study. Possible cause of this may be lack of specialized facility in this reason and study period included first and second wave of COVID. Further, large sample size studies and/or nationwide registry/database are needed to know the exact burden of CHD.
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Article published online:
14 July 2022
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