Diterpene Lipo-Alkaloids with Selective Activities on Cardiac K+ Channels
received 13 February 2017
revised 27 March 2017
accepted 15 April 2017
04 May 2017 (eFirst)
Aconitum diterpene alkaloids are known for their remarkable toxicity, which is due to their effect on ion channels. Activation of voltage-gated Na+ channels is the major cause of their cardiotoxicity, however, influence on K+ channels may also play a role in the overall effect.
Here we report the synthesis of a series of lipo-alkaloids, including four new compounds, based on the 14-benzoylaconine structure, which is the core of a vast number of diterpene alkaloids naturally occurring in Aconitum species. The activities of these compounds were measured in vitro on K+ ion channels using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Structure-activity analysis was carried out based on the data of 51 compounds (32 genuine diterpene alkaloids, 5 fatty acids, and 14 lipo-alkaloids). Depending on their substitution, these compounds exert different activities on GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel) and hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channels. Fatty acids and diterpene alkaloids show lower activity on the GIRK channel than lipo-alkaloids. Lipo-alkaloids also have less pronounced hERG inhibitory activity compared to the cardiotoxic aconitine. Considering the GIRK/hERG selectivity as an indicator of perspective therapeutic applicability, lipo-alkaloids are significantly more selective than the genuine diterpene alkaloids. 14-Benzoyl-8-O-eicosa-8Z,11Z,14Z-trienoate and 14-benzoyl-8-O-eicosa-11Z,14Z,17Z-trienoate are strong and selective inhibitors of GIRK channels, thus, they are promising subjects for further studies to develop diterpene alkaloid-based antiarrhythmic pharmacons.