Drug Res (Stuttg) 2017; 67(09): 547-552
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-110483
Original Article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Apoptosis and Caspase 3 Pathway Role on Anti-Proliferative Effects of Scrophulariaoxy Sepala Methanolic Extract on Caco-2 Cells

Ali Namvaran1, 2, Mehdi Fazeli1, Safar Farajnia3, Gholamreza Hamidian4, Hassan Rezazadeh2, 3
  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
  • 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 3Drug Applied Research Center - Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  • 4Department of Basic, Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Further Information

Publication History

received 18 January 2017

accepted 27 April 2017

Publication Date:
19 June 2017 (eFirst)


Colorectal cancer is one the most important malignancies worldwide and finding new treatment option for this cancer is of high priority. Natural compounds are common source of drugs for treatment of various diseases including cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Scrophularia oxysepala extract on Caco-2 cells and explore the possible role of caspase 3 pathway in inducing cell death in this cancer cells in compare with chemotherapy agents of cisplatin and capecitabine. The methanolic extract of Scrophularia oxysepala (SO) was prepared by drench method. The IC50 of extract, cisplatin and capecitabine on Caco-2 cells were determined by MTT assay. The effect of SO extract on caspase 3 expression and inducing apoptosis were determined using TUNEL assay and caspase 3 ELISA methods, respectively. The IC50 of SO extract, cisplatin and capecitabine were 300, 195 and 80 µg/ml, respectively. Analysis for apoptosis revealed that SO methanolic extract increased apoptosis significantly (P<0.001) compared with control group. The effect of high doses of SO extract on apoptosis induction were comparable to cisplatin but significantly were higher than capecitabine. Only high doses of SO methanolic extract showed significant effects (P<0.05) on increasing caspase 3 compared to control group. The methanolic extract of SO showed inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner comparable to cisplatin and higher than capecitabine 2 commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for various cancers.