Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Boldine and Reticuline Isolated from Litsea cubeba through JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways
received 07 December 2016
revised 10 May 2017
accepted 07 June 2017
26 June 2017 (eFirst)
The anti-inflammatory effects of boldine and reticuline isolated from Litsea cubeba were evaluated by using xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats. Our results demonstrated that intragastric administration with boldine and reticuline significantly mitigated ear weight in mice and decreased paw volume in rats. A combination administration of boldine (0.5 mg/kg) + reticuline (0.25 mg/kg) resulted in a potentiated inhibition in these two models. In parallel, boldine or reticuline reduce the infiltration of neutrophil leukocytes in rat paw tissue, respectively, and the combination of the two groups performed a better anti-inflammatory activity as shown in histopathologies. Boldine, reticuline, and their combination notably inhibited mRNA expressions of TNF-α, and IL-6 and reduced the phosphorylation levels of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Beyond that, their combination also can reduce the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα in the pathological tissues of animals, as observed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses, respectively. These findings indicate for the first time that boldine and reticuline have not only anti-inflammatory activity but also potential synergistic effects in vivo. The underlying mechanism may relate to the inhibition on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, which may be a consequence of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB pathway involvements. This study provides useful data for further exploration and application of boldine and reticuline as potential anti-inflammatory medicines.
Key wordsanti-inflammation - isoquinoline alkaloids - boldine - reticuline - JAK2/STAT3 - NF-κB - Litsea cubeba
* The first two authors contributed to the paper equally.