Bioactivity-Guided Investigation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hippophae rhamnoides Fruits
received 31 January 2017
revised 18 May 2017
accepted 09 June 2017
29 June 2017 (eFirst)
According to modern ethnobotanical records, the fruit of Hippophae rhamnoides is effective in the treatment of different allergic symptoms. In order to obtain pharmacological evidence for this observation, the fruit was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using in vivo animal models. Aqueous and 70% MeOH extracts were tested in 48/80-induced rat paw edema assay after oral administration, and it was found that the 70% MeOH extract (500 mg/kg) reduced significantly edema volume (0.660 ± 0.082 mL vs. control 0.935 ± 0.041 mL). Extracts of different parts of the fruit (pulp, peel, seed) were investigated in the same assay, and the peel extract was shown to exhibit maximum edema-reducing effect (0.470 ± 0.124 mL vs. control 0.920 ± 0.111 mL). This extract was used to elucidate the mode of action. Different inflammation inducers (serotonin, histamine, dextran, bradykinin, and carrageenan) were applied in the rat paw model, but the extract inhibited only the compound 48/80 elicited inflammation. The active extract was then fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning and chromatographic methods with the guidance of the 48/80-induced anti-inflammatory assay, and the main compounds responsible for the activity were identified as ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Our data suggest that the activity is most probably based on a membrane stabilizing effect caused by the inhibition of degranulation of mast cells. Moreover, previously unknown 2,5-bis-aryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran lignans, nectandrin B, fragransin A2, and saucernetindiol were isolated and identified from H. rhamnoides for the first time.