Neurology International Open 2017; 01(04): E294-E306
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-118111
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Brain and Spinal Cord MRI in Multiple Sclerosis: an Update

Mike P. Wattjes
1  Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2  Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Peter Raab
2  Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 October 2017 (online)


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and has been incorporated into the McDonald diagnostic criteria for MS. In particular, for the exclusion of important differential diagnosis and comorbidities, new MRI markers have been established such as the “central vein sign”. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the role of MRI in MS monitoring is becoming increasingly important, particularly for pharmacovigilance. This includes treatment efficacy monitoring, prediction of treatment response and safety monitoring. Quantitative MRI methods and ultra-high-field MRI offer the opportunity for the quantitative assessment of damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. However, the standardization of these techniques with the goal of implementation in clinical routine will be one of the major challenges in the near future.