Respiratory Rate Threshold Accurately Estimates the Second Lactate Threshold
accepted 08 December 2017
23 January 2018 (online)
Purpose The modified Dmax method can accurately determine the second lactate threshold (LT2), which is valuable for predicting aerobic performance and prescribing exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine if the modified Dmax method can accurately find thresholds in VE (VT2), VCO2 (VCO2T), RER (RERT), and RR (RRT) to estimate LT2.
Methods Forty-one participants (females n=23, males n=18) completed an incremental exercise test to determine LT2, VT2, VCO2T, RERT, RRT, and blood lactate=4 mmol/L (La4).
Results VT2 and RRT were strongly correlated with VO2 and HR at LT2, with very small bias and limits of agreement, indicating that VT2 and RRT provide accurate estimates of LT2 (VO2 at VT2-LT2 mean difference=0.37±1.91 ml/kg/min, p=0.95; HR at VT2-LT2 mean difference=0.25±2.58 bpm, p=0.99; VO2 at RRT-LT2 mean difference 0.26±2.11 ml/kg/min, p=0.99; HR at RRT-LT mean difference 0.44±3.31 bpm, p=0.99). VCO2T, RERT, and La4 were either accurate for VO2 or HR estimates of LT2, but not both.
Conclusions VT2 and RRT provide accurate estimates of LT2 using the modified Dmax method. There is the potential to use RRT in developing field tests to estimate LT2 in practical settings.
- 1 Atkinson G, Davison RC, Jeukendrup AE, Passfield L. Science and cycling: Current knowledge and future directions for research. J Sports Sci 2003; 21: 767-787
- 2 Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ. Improved detection of lactate threshold during exercise using a log-log transformation. J Appl Physiol 1985; 59: 1936-1940
- 3 Bentley DJ, Newell J, Bishop D. Incremental Exercise Test Design and Analysis. Sport Med 2007; 37: 575-586
- 4 Bernasconi P, Burki P, Buhrer A, Koller E, Kohl J. Running training and co-ordination between breathing and running rhythyms during aerobic and anaerobic conditions in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 1995; 70: 387-393
- 5 Binder RK, Wonisch M, Corra U, Cohen-Solal A, Vanhees L, Saner H, Schmid J-P. Methodological approach to the first and second lactate threshold in incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008; 15: 726-734
- 6 Chalmers S, Esterman A, Eston R, Norton K. Standardisation of the Dmax Method for Calculating the Second Lactate Threshold. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2015; 921-926
- 7 Cheng B, Kuipers H, Snyder AC, Keizer HA, Jeukendrup A, Hesselink M. A new approach for the determination of ventilatory and lactate thresholds. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13: 518-522
- 8 Conconi F, Ferrari M, Ziglio PG, Droghetti P, Codeca L. Determination of the anaerobic threshold by a noninvasive field test in runners. J Appl Physiol 1982; 52: 869-873
- 9 Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hopper MK, Walters TJ. Determinants of endurance in well-trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol 1988; 64: 2622-2630
- 10 Coyle EF, Feltner ME, Kautz SA, Hamilton MT, Montain SJ, Baylor AM, Abraham LD, Petrek GW. Physiological and biomechanical factors associated with elite endurance cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991; 23: 93-107
- 11 Crouter SE, Antczak A, Hudak JR, DellaValle DM, Haas JD. Accuracy and reliability of the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 and MedGraphics VO2000 metabolic systems. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006; 98: 139-151
- 12 Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T. Lactate threshold concepts: How valid are they?. Sport Med 2009; 39: 469-490
- 13 Grant S, McMillan K, Newell J, Wood L, Keatley S, Simpson D, Leslie K, Fairlie-Clark S. Reproducibility of the blood lactate threshold, 4 mmol·l -1 marker, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion during incremental treadmill exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002; 87: 159-166
- 14 Harriss DJ, Macsween A, Atkinson G. Standards for Ethics in Sport and Exercise Science Research: 2018 Update. Int J Sports Med 2017; 38: 1126-1131
- 15 Hart S, Drevets K, Alford M, Salacinski A, Hunt BE. A method-comparison study regarding the validity and reliability of the Lactate Plus analyzer. BMJ Open 2013; 3: e001899
- 16 Hughson RL, Weisiger KH, Swanson GD. Blood lactate concentration increases as a continuous function in progressive exercise. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 1975-1981
- 17 Kindermann W, Simon G, Keul J. The significance of the aerobic-anaerobic transition for the determination of work load intensities during endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 1979; 42: 25-34
- 18 Lundberg MA, Hughson RL, Weisiger KH, Jones RH, Swanson GD. Computerized estimation of lactate threshold. Comput Biomed Res 1986; 19: 481-486
- 19 McGehee JC, Tanner CJ, Houmard JA. A comparison of methods for estimating the lactate threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19: 553-558
- 20 Meyer T, Lucía A, Earnest CP, Kindermann W. A conceptual framework for performance diagnosis and training prescription from submaximal gas exchange parameters – Theory and application. Int J Sport Med Suppl 2005; 26 Suppl 1: S38-48
- 21 Roseguini BT, Narro F, Oliveira ÁR, Ribeiro JP. Estimation of the lactate threshold from heart rate response to submaximal exercise: The pulse deficit. Int J Sports Med 2007; 28: 463-469
- 22 Sjödin B, Svedenhag J. Applied physiology of marathon running. Sports Med 1985; 2: 83-99
- 23 Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN, Beaver WL. Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1973; 35: 236-243
- 24 Whipp BJ, Ward SA. Physiological determinants of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics during exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1990; 22: 62-71