CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Diabetes and Endocrine Practice 2023; 06(01): 011-016
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1763272
Original Article

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Associated Estimated Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Adult Volunteers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Nabeel H. Ismaeil
1   Department Cardiovascular, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Ammar G. Chaudhary
2   Department Cardiovascular Diseases, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Nasser A. Mahdi
3   Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Adel M. Al-Hyari
4   Obesity, Endocrine and Metabolic Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia
Naji Aljohani
5   Obesity, Endocrine and Metabolic Center King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations
Funding and Sponsorship None.


Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are rising globally, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The majority of epidemiologic data, however, was obtained from primary care centers or tertiary hospitals, and disease epidemiology in the general population needs to be better defined.

Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in a random sample of adult volunteers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and their risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data from volunteers participating in the “My Heart, My Health” community campaign conducted in a large-scale commercial center in Jeddah, KSA. Participants 20 years of age and above answered a questionnaire containing several risk factors of ASCVD. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected for lipid profile and hemoglobin A1c. Ten-year and lifelong ASCVD risk scores were calculated.

Results Eight-hundred seven volunteers participated (390 men and 417 women). The most common risk factor for men was low-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which was more prevalent than in women (77.9 vs. 30.3%, p < 0.01). The most common risk factor for women was obesity that was more prevalent than for men (42.6 vs. 36.8%, p = 0.30). The mean ASCVD risk score in 10 years was 8.1% (standard deviation [SD]: 10.5), and the mean ASCVD risk factor optimization % was 2.0% (SD: 2.5). The mean lifelong risk score was 39.5% (SD: 13.9), and the mean ASCVD lifelong risk factor optimization was 6.6% (SD: 2.6).

Conclusion This study identified a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the Saudi general public visiting a large commercial center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The leading cardiometabolic risk factor is dyslipidemia in men and obesity in women. The 10-year ASCVD risk factor score is modest.

Authors' Contributions

All the named authors have participated in the conception of the study and data analysis. They all contributed to the drafting and revising of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Principles

Ethical approval was obtained from the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Publication History

Article published online:
05 April 2023

© 2023. Gulf Association of Endocrinology and Diabetes (GAED). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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