Semin Hear 2023; 44(02): 188-210
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1766105
Review Article

Brightening the Study of Listening Effort with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: A Scoping Review

Hannah E. Shatzer
1   Department of Psychology, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada
Frank A. Russo
1   Department of Psychology, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Canada
› Author Affiliations


Listening effort is a long-standing area of interest in auditory cognitive neuroscience. Prior research has used multiple techniques to shed light on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying listening during challenging conditions. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is growing in popularity as a tool for cognitive neuroscience research, and its recent advances offer many potential advantages over other neuroimaging modalities for research related to listening effort. This review introduces the basic science of fNIRS and its uses for auditory cognitive neuroscience. We also discuss its application in recently published studies on listening effort and consider future opportunities for studying effortful listening with fNIRS. After reading this article, the learner will know how fNIRS works and summarize its uses for listening effort research. The learner will also be able to apply this knowledge toward generation of future research in this area.

Publication History

Article published online:
06 April 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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