Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2023; 36(04): 218-224
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1768230
Original Research

Outcome and Complications following Stabilization of Coxofemoral Luxations in Cats Using a Modified Hip Toggle Stabilization—A Retrospective Multicentre Study

1   Department for Small Animals, Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
1   Department for Small Animals, Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Nadja Wolfer
2   Department for Clinical Diagnostics and Services, Clinic for Diagnostic Imaging, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Philipp A. Schmierer
1   Department for Small Animals, Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
4   Tierärztliche Klinik Posthausen, Posthausen, Germany
Andreas Hermann
3   Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland
Antonio Pozzi
1   Department for Small Animals, Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Objectives The main aim of this study was to report the surgical technique, the complications and the clinical outcomes of the mini-Tight Rope system (mini-TR) for a modified hip toggle stabilization of coxofemoral luxation in cats.

Study Design A multicentre retrospective study.

Animals Thirty-two client-owned cats.

Methods Medical records (2009–2017) of cats, which underwent stabilization of a coxofemoral luxation with the mini-TR and had at least a 3-month follow-up, were reviewed. The femoral tunnel diameter, the use of one or two FiberWire loops, perioperative complications and clinical outcomes were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained through clinical and radiographic examinations and an owner questionnaire.

Results Thirty-two cats met the inclusion criteria. Concurrent injuries were present in 16 cats. A single or double loop mini-TR was used in 21 and 12 cats respectively. One double loop (1/12 cats) and four single loop (4/16 cats) sutures failed. Moderate-to-severe coxofemoral osteoarthritis developed in 14/27 cats. Owner questionnaires revealed excellent clinical outcomes.

Clinical Significance Mini-TR with a double-stranded implant is recommended to decrease the risk of suture failure. Osteoarthritis is common after open reduction of hip luxations.


This study was presented in abstract form at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Veterinary Orthopedic Society, Snowmass, Colo, March 2018.

Authors' Contribution

All authors contributed to study design, editing of the manuscript and approval of the final version. S.C.K., N.W., A.P., and F.L. contributed to writing of the manuscript. S.C.K. and A.H. contributed to data retrieval. S.C.K. performed the data analysis.

Publication History

Received: 11 April 2022

Accepted: 14 March 2023

Article published online:
28 April 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

  • References

  • 1 Basher AWP, Walter MC, Newton CD. Coxofemoral luxation in the dog and cat. Vet Surg 1986; 15 (05) 356-362
  • 2 Kieves NR, Lotsikas PJ, Schulz KS, Canapp SO. Hip toggle stabilization using the TightRope® system in 17 dogs: technique and long-term outcome. Vet Surg 2014; 43 (05) 515-522
  • 3 Ash K, Rosselli D, Danielski A, Farrell M, Hamilton M, Fitzpatrick N. Correction of craniodorsal coxofemoral luxation in cats and small breed dogs using a modified Knowles technique with the braided polyblend TightRope systems. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2012; 25 (01) 54-60
  • 4 Pratesi A, Grierson J, Moores AP. Toggle rod stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 14 cats. J Small Anim Pract 2012; 53 (05) 260-266
  • 5 Cook JL, Evans R, Conzemius MG. et al. Proposed definitions and criteria for reporting time frame, outcome, and complications for clinical orthopedic studies in veterinary medicine. Vet Surg 2010; 39 (08) 905-908
  • 6 Langley-Hobbs SJ, Meeson RL, Hamilton MH, Radke H, Lee K. Feline ilial fractures: a prospective study of dorsal plating and comparison with lateral plating. Vet Surg 2009; 38 (03) 334-342
  • 7 Benito J, Gruen ME, Thomson A, Simpson W, Lascelles BDX. Owner-assessed indices of quality of life in cats and the relationship to the presence of degenerative joint disease. J Feline Med Surg 2012; 14 (12) 863-870
  • 8 Espinel Rupérez J, Arthurs GI, Hewit A. et al. Complications and outcomes of cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with hip toggle stabilization using ultrahigh-molecular-weight-polyethylene or nylon (2009-2018): 48 cats. Vet Surg 2021; 50 (05) 1042-1053
  • 9 Sissener TR, Whitelock RG, Langley-Hobbs SJ. Long-term results of transarticular pinning for surgical stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 20 cats. J Small Anim Pract 2009; 50 (03) 112-117
  • 10 Cetinkaya MA, Olcay B. Modified Knowles toggle pin technique with nylon monofilament suture material for treatment of two caudoventral hip luxation cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2010; 23 (02) 114-118
  • 11 Meij BP, Hazewinkel HAW, Nap RC. Results of extra-articular stabilisation following open reduction of coxofemoral luxation in dogs and cats. J Small Anim Pract 1992; 33 (07) 320-326
  • 12 Zur Luxatio ossis femoris traumatica bei der Katze: Behandlung u. Ergebnis in d. Jahren 1975–1984. Dissertation.: Böhmer, Hermann, University of Munich.
  • 13 Evers P, Johnston GR, Wallace LJ, Lipowitz AJ, King VL. Long-term results of treatment of traumatic coxofemoral joint dislocation in dogs: 64 cases (1973-1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210 (01) 59-64
  • 14 Nganvongpanit K, Pradit W, Chomdej S. Articular cartilage gene expression after coxofemoral joint luxation in the dog. Vet Med Int 2013; 2013: 936317
  • 15 Hammer DL. Recurrent coxofemoral luxation in fifteen dogs and one cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980; 177 (10) 1018-1020
  • 16 Schmökel HG, Ehrismann G. The surgical treatment of talocrural luxation in nine cats. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol •••;200114:46–50
  • 17 Pond MJ, Nuki G. Experimentally-induced osteoarthritis in the dog. Ann Rheum Dis 1973; 32 (04) 387-388
  • 18 Shorter E, Sannicandro AJ, Poulet B, Goljanek-Whysall K. Skeletal muscle wasting and its relationship with osteoarthritis: a mini-review of mechanisms and current interventions. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2019; 21 (08) 40