Subscribe to RSS
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress with and without COVID-19 InfectionFunding None.
Objectives Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the respiratory system predominantly. However, post-COVID recovery, many manifested neurological and psychological symptoms, unrelated to the respiratory system. We aimed to estimate psychological impairment in individuals who were infected with COVID-19 in comparison with two uninfected control groups, and between different age cohorts.
Materials and Methods We compared three groups with respect to COVID-19—those infected, those not infected but witness to someone infected, and those neither infected nor witness to anyone infected, along with age cohort comparison. The standard Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 42 items (DASS 42) questionnaire, with additional questions were answered by 301 participants.
Statistical Analysis SPSS was used for analyses, with Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Tukey's post hoc test.
Results Significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were found in the infected group than in the uninfected groups, and significant difference was found between the older age cohorts (50 and above) of each group. The percentages of the infected group with severe to very severe depression, anxiety, and stress were higher than the other groups.
Conclusion There is greater psychological impairment in individuals post-COVID recovery, and there is higher impairment in the older age cohort that is recovered, compared to controls.
Conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Presented to the departmental research review committee, wherein it was exempted from requiring IRB approval because of the nature of study—it involved no harm or distress to any participant.
Presented (online) at the International Conference on Mental Health and COVID-19 (ICMHC 2022), held by Aligarh Muslim University, on the 25th of November, 2022.
S.S.: Design, concept, collecting data, collating data, analyzing, writing manuscript, conducting study ethically.
A.J.K.: Design, critically reviewing manuscript, analyzing data.
S.B.: Design, critically reviewing manuscript.
Article published online:
30 May 2023
© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India
- 1 India Country Overview. World Health Organization. Accessed February 2, 2022, at: https://www.who.int/countries/ind
- 2 Coronavirus. World Health Organization. Accessed September 22, 2021, at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_3
- 3 Tucker P, Czapla CS. . Post-COVID Stress Disorder: Another Emerging Consequence of the Global Pandemic. Psychiatric Times. Published January 9, 2021. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/post-covid-stress-disorder-emerging-consequence-global-pandemic
- 4 Garg P, Arora U, Kumar A, Wig N. The “post-COVID” syndrome: how deep is the damage?. J Med Virol 2021; 93 (02) 673-674
- 5 Yong SJ. Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome: putative pathophysiology, risk factors, and treatments. Infect Dis (Lond) 2021; 53 (10) 737-754
- 6 Tsamakis K, Tsiptsios D, Ouranidis A. et al. COVID-19 and its consequences on mental health (Review). Exp Ther Med 2021; 21 (03) 244
- 7 Mendes A, Serratrice C, Herrmann FR. et al. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in older patients with COVID-19: the Covidage study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020; 21 (11) 1546-1554.e3
- 8 WMA Declaration of Helsinki – ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. The World Medical Association. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/
- 9 Depression anxiety stress scales - DASS. UNSW. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/dass/
- 10 Overview of the DASS and its uses. UNSW. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/dass/over.htm
- 11 Kalkan Uğurlu Y, Mataracı Değirmenci D, Durgun H, Gök Uğur H. The examination of the relationship between nursing students' depression, anxiety and stress levels and restrictive, emotional, and external eating behaviors in COVID-19 social isolation process. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2021; 57 (02) 507-516
- 12 Brown TA, Chorpita BF, Korotitsch W, Barlow DH. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35 (01) 79-89
- 13 Cooney E. . Long after the fire of a COVID-19 infection, mental and neurological effects can still smolder. STAT. Published August 13, 2020. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: https://www.statnews.com/2020/08/12/after-covid19-mental-neurological-effects-smolder/
- 14 Saladino V, Algeri D, Auriemma V. The psychological and social impact of covid-19: new perspectives of well-being. Front Psychol 2020; 11: 577684
- 15 Long Covid or post-covid conditions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published February 11, 2020. Accessed September 23, 2021, at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/long-term-effects/index.html#:%7E:text=New%20or%20Ongoing%20Symptoms&text=Difficulty%20breathing%20or%20shortness%20of,Cough
- 16 Janiri D, Carfì A, Kotzalidis GD, Bernabei R, Landi F, Sani G. Gemelli Against COVID-19 Post-Acute Care Study Group. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after severe COVID-19 infection. JAMA Psychiatry 2021; 78 (05) 567-569
- 17 Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Palacios-Ceña D, Gómez-Mayordomo V, Cuadrado ML, Florencio LL. Defining post-COVID symptoms (post-acute COVID, long COVID, persistent post-COVID): an integrative classification. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021; 18 (05) 2621
- 18 Sher L. Post-COVID syndrome and suicide risk. QJM 2021; 114 (02) 95-98
- 19 Dubey S, Biswas P, Ghosh R. et al. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14 (05) 779-788