CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Fetal Medicine 2023; 10(02): 053-061
DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-1770736
Review Article

Pulsed Wave Doppler of Cardiac Valves

1   Karu–Fetal Diagnosis, Therapy, Genetics and Research Institute, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India
› Author Affiliations


Despite newer techniques like tissue Doppler and speckle tracking, the need for a spectral Doppler still exists. It can give parameters that are not possible by newer techniques like peak systolic velocity and the ratio of time and velocity. In this article, we discuss the technique for doing pulsed wave Doppler for fetal cardiac valves.

Publication History

Article published online:
24 August 2023

© 2023. Society of Fetal Medicine. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Meriki N, Izurieta A, Welsh AW. Fetal left modified myocardial performance index: technical refinements in obtaining pulsed-Doppler waveforms. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39 (04) 421-429
  • 2 Armstrong WF, Ryan T, Feigenbaum H. Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2019
  • 3 Abuhamad A, Rabih CA. Practical Guide to Fetal Echocardiography: Normal and Abnormal Hearts. 4th ed. Waltham, MA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2022
  • 4 Bhide A, Acharya G, Baschat A. et al. ISUOG practice guidelines (updated): use of Doppler velocimetry in obstetrics. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021; 58 (02) 331-339
  • 5 Zidere V, Vigneswaran TV, Syngelaki A. et al. Reference ranges for pulsed-wave doppler of the fetal cardiac inflow and outflow tracts from 13 to 36 weeks' gestation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021; 34 (09) 1007-1016.e10
  • 6 Allan LD, Chita SK, Al-Ghazali W, Crawford DC, Tynan M. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human fetal heart. Br Heart J 1987; 57 (06) 528-533
  • 7 Reed KL, Anderson CF, Shenker L. Fetal pulmonary artery and aorta: two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. Obstet Gynecol 1987; 69 (02) 175-178
  • 8 Villa CR, Habli M, Votava-Smith JK. et al. Assessment of fetal cardiomyopathy in early-stage twin-twin transfusion syndrome: comparison between commonly reported cardiovascular assessment scores. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014; 43 (06) 646-651
  • 9 Michelfelder E, Gottliebson W, Border W. et al. Early manifestations and spectrum of recipient twin cardiomyopathy in twin-twin transfusion syndrome: relation to Quintero stage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 30 (07) 965-971
  • 10 Depla AL, De Wit L, Steenhuis TJ. et al. Effect of maternal diabetes on fetal heart function on echocardiography: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021; 57 (04) 539-550
  • 11 Sepulveda W, Alcalde JL, Schnapp C, Bravo M. Perinatal outcome after prenatal diagnosis of placental chorioangioma. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102 (5 Pt 1): 1028-1033