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Rivaroxaban versus Apixaban for Treatment of Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism in Patients at Lower Risk of Bleeding
This retrospective study, utilizing U.S. electronic health record (EHR) data from January 2013 to December 2020, sought to assess whether rivaroxaban and apixaban had similar effectiveness and safety in the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with a cancer type not associated with a high risk of bleeding. We included adults diagnosed with active cancer, excluding esophageal, gastric, unresected colorectal, bladder, noncerebral central nervous system cancers and leukemia, who experienced VTE and received a therapeutic VTE dose of rivaroxaban or apixaban on day 7 post-VTE, and were active in the EHR ≥12 months prior to the VTE. Primary outcome was the composite of recurrent VTE or any bleed resulting in hospitalization at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included recurrent VTE, any bleed resulting in hospitalization, any critical organ bleed, and composites of these outcomes at 3 and 6 months. Inverse probability of treatment-weighted Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 1,344 apixaban and 1,093 rivaroxaban patients. At 3 months, rivaroxaban was found to have similar hazard to apixaban for developing recurrent VTE or any bleed resulting in hospitalization (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60–1.27). No differences were observed between cohorts for this outcome at 6 months (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.71–1.40) or for any other outcome at 3 or 6 months. In conclusion, patients receiving rivaroxaban or apixaban showed similar risks of the composite of recurrent VTE or any bleed resulting in hospitalization in patients with cancer-associated VTE. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT05461807.
Rivaroxaban and apixaban have similar effectiveness and safety for treatment of cancer-associated VTE through 6 months.
Clinicians should therefore consider patient preference and adherence when choosing the optimal anticoagulant.
a At time of study conduct, currently affiliated with Janssen Research and Development, Barcelona, Spain.
b At time of study conduct, currently consultant for Bayer AG.
Received: 03 March 2023
Accepted: 17 May 2023
Article published online:
10 July 2023
© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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