CC BY 4.0 · Avicenna J Med 2024; 14(02): 075-109
DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-1782202
Review Article

Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasizing to Oral Soft Tissues: Systematic Review

Harnisha Vipulkumar Prajapati
1   Bhavya Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Palanpur, Gujarat, India
Ruchira Shreevats
2   Primadent Dental Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3   Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology & Forensic Odontology, Yamuna Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Yamunanagar, Haryana, India
Harman Sandhu
4   Building Smiles Dental Clinic, Mohali, Punjab, India
5   Dentistry in Motion, North York, Ontario, Canada
Jasmine Kaur
6   St. Joseph Healthcare Centre, Toronto, Canada
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Background Renal cancer metastasis to oral region is very rare. Studies have been published analyzing the cases of metastatic tumors to the oral cavity by many researchers. Very few research studies have been conducted till date to analyze the renal cancer metastasis as the sole primary source to the oral soft tissues. The goal of this study was to examine the published cases of oral soft tissue metastasis from renal cell carcinoma as the only primary source from 1911 to 2022.

Materials and Methods An electronic search of the published literature was performed without publication year limitation in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, and Research Gate databases, using mesh keywords like (“Renal cancer,” or “Renal carcinoma” or “Renal cell cancer” or “Renal cell carcinoma”), and (“Metastasis” or “Metastases”), and (“Oral soft tissues” or “Tongue” or “Palate” or “Tonsil” or “Buccal mucosa” or “Salivary glands”). We also searched related journals manually and the reference lists.

Results Our research revealed a total of 226 relevant articles with 250 patients. Parotid glands and tongue were the most common sites of metastasis. 23% patients died with a survival time of 10 days to 4 years.

Conclusions Oral soft tissue metastasis from renal cell carcinoma has a bad prognosis. More cases need to be published in order to raise awareness of these lesions.


BM: Buccal mucosa, CCC: Clear cell carcinoma, HP: Hard palate, LC: Lung cancer, NA: Not available, OST: Oral soft tissues, OSTM: Oral soft tissue metastasis, RCC: Renal cell carcinoma, SMG: Submandibular gland, SP: Soft palate.

Ethical Approval

Not required.

Ethical Approval and Consent to Participate

Not applicable.

Consent for Publication

Not applicable.

Availability of Data and Material

Electronic research.

Competing Interests


Authors' Contributions

• S.G., H.V.P.: Conceptualization, data curation, investigation, methodology, project administration, resources, validation, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing, supervision.

• R.V., H.S., J.K., J.K.: Investigation, methodology, project administration, validation.

Publication History

Article published online:
06 May 2024

© 2024. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68 (06) 394-424
  • 2 Padala SA, Barsouk A, Thandra KC. et al. Epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. World J Oncol 2020; 11 (03) 79-87
  • 3 Brufau BP, Cerqueda CS, Villalba LB, Izquierdo RS, González BM, Molina CN. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma: radiologic findings and assessment of response to targeted antiangiogenic therapy by using multidetector CT. Radiographics 2013; 33 (06) 1691-1716
  • 4 Gong J, Maia MC, Dizman N, Govindarajan A, Pal SK. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: biology and implications for therapy. Asian J Urol 2016; 3 (04) 286-292
  • 5 Irani S. Metastasis to the oral soft tissues: a review of 412 cases. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2016; 6 (05) 393-401
  • 6 Hirshberg A, Shnaiderman-Shapiro A, Kaplan I, Berger R. Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity - pathogenesis and analysis of 673 cases. Oral Oncol 2008; 44 (08) 743-752
  • 7 Servato JP, de Paulo LF, de Faria PR, Cardoso SV, Loyola AM. Metastatic tumours to the head and neck: retrospective analysis from a Brazilian tertiary referral centre. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013; 42 (11) 1391-1396
  • 8 Hirshberg A, Berger R, Allon I, Kaplan I. Metastatic tumors to the jaws and mouth. Head Neck Pathol 2014; 8 (04) 463-474
  • 9 Riley DS, Barber MS, Kienle GS. et al. CARE guidelines for case reports: explanation and elaboration document. J Clin Epidemiol 2017; 89: 218-235
  • 10 von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. STROBE Initiative. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61 (04) 344-349
  • 11 Suojanen J, Färkkilä E, Helkamaa T. et al. Rapidly growing and ulcerating metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the lower lip: a case report and review of the literature. Oncol Lett 2014; 8 (05) 2175-2178
  • 12 Udager AM, Rungta SA. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type, of the parotid gland: a case report, review of literature, and proposed algorithmic approach to salivary gland clear cell neoplasms in fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Diagn Cytopathol 2014; 42 (11) 974-983
  • 13 Lieder A, Guenzel T, Lebentrau S, Schneider C, Franzen A. Diagnostic relevance of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the head and neck: an evaluation of 22 cases in 671 patients. Int Braz J Urol 2017; 43 (02) 202-208
  • 14 Vasilyeva D, Peters SM, Philipone EM, Yoon AJ. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the maxillary gingiva: a case report and review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2018; 22 (Suppl. 01) S102-S107
  • 15 Sydney G, Ioakim K, Kara N, George Pantelas G. Rare case of clear cell renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to contralateral kidney and ipsilateral parotid more than five years following nephrectomy. Balk J Dent Med 2019; 23: 108-111
  • 16 Fejsa Levakov A, Amidžic J, Ilić Sabo J, Lakić T, Vojinov S, Grbić D. Unusual site for metastatic renal cell carcinoma – a case report. Vojnosanit Pregl 2020; 7: 233-236
  • 17 Halbony H, Albrezat M, Hmaid D, Albsoul N. Parotid gland metastasis as an initial presentation of renal cell carcinoma: a case report. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020; 34: 175
  • 18 Kovalski LNS, Ribeiro JT, Martins MD. et al. A rare case of oral metastasis of renal clear cell carcinoma: case report and review of literature. J. Oral Diag. 2020; 05: e20200006
  • 19 Nisi M, Izzetti R, Graziani F, Gabriele M. Renal cell carcinoma metastases to the oral cavity: report of 2 cases and review of literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020; 78 (09) 1557-1571
  • 20 Patel S, Barros J, Nwizu NN, Ogbureke KUE. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the oral cavity as first sign of disease: a case report. Clin Case Rep 2020; 8 (08) 1517-1521
  • 21 Stojanović M, Krasić D, Trajković M, Petrović V. Rare renal cell carcinoma metastasis to mandibular gingiva: a case report and literature review. Niger J Clin Pract 2020; 23 (10) 1483-1486
  • 22 Cecen A, Kavaz E, Gun S. A rare case: renal cell carcinoma metastasis to lower lip. J Exp Clin Med 2021; 38: 396-397
  • 23 Chelliah P, Shah KM, Vandergriff T, Nijhawan RI. Pink nodule of the chin: an unusual presentation of metastatic carcinoma. Dermatol Online J 2021; 27 (08) 2-5
  • 24 Darshan DP, Rahul A, Umank BT. Unusual site of metastasis in a case of renal cell carcinoma - a case report. Guj Canc Soc Res J 2021; 1: 25-27
  • 25 Gopan G, Kamala LH, Radhakrishnan N. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as bulky parotid mass - a case report and review of literature. Indian J Surg Oncol 2021; 12 (Suppl. 02) 378-382
  • 26 Martire MB, Villena LF, Sousa Jr JA, Montoro JRM, Uvo SAB. Parotid metastasis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC): a case report. Arch Head Neck Surg. 2021; 50: e20215016
  • 27 Santana T, Custódio M, Dayla Melo Oliveira C, Dos Santos Antunes E, Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa S, Daumas Nunes F. Parotid metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma 8 years after nephrectomy. Oral Oncol 2021; 122: 105561
  • 28 Villanueva F, Fonseca D, Rojas C. Escalante l. Granulomatous lesion in inserted gum-metastasis of renal clear. ODOVTOS-Int J Dental Sc 2021; 23–1: 43-52
  • 29 Williams J, Depcik-Smith N, Williams T, Feldman SR. Metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma masquerading as a pyogenic granuloma on the lip. Dermatol Online J 2021; 27 (11) 1-6
  • 30 Baez FS, Collazo P. Oral metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. A case report and literature review. Odontoestomatologia 2022; 24: 1-7
  • 31 Lavanya ML, Iyer PJM, Vijayakumar R. Buccal mucosal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. International Journal of Clinical Research 2022; 3: 132-137
  • 32 Singla A, Sharma U, Makkar A. et al. Rare metastatic sites of renal cell carcinoma: a case series. Pan Afr Med J 2022; 42: 26
  • 33 Wallace J, Abelardo E, Ramachandran K, Prabhu V. Renal cell carcinoma uvula metastasis leading to airway compromise: an unusual site. BMJ Case Rep 2022; 15 (04) e248098
  • 34 Liu Y, Vargo RJ, Bilodeau EA. Analytic survey of 57 cases of oral metastases. J Oral Pathol Med 2018; 47 (03) 275-280
  • 35 Abraham GP, Cherian T, Mahadevan P, Avinash TS, George D, Manuel E. Detailed study of survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma in India. Indian J Cancer 2016; 53 (04) 572-574
  • 36 Howlander N, Noone AM, Krapcho M. et al. SEER cancer statistics review 1975-2016. Natl. Cancer Institute 2019 . Accessed February 5, 2024 at: › csr › 1975_2016
  • 37 Tsivian M, Moreira DM, Caso JR, Mouraviev V, Polascik TJ. Cigarette smoking is associated with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29 (15) 2027-2031
  • 38 Wyszyńska-Pawelec G, Gontarz M, Zapała J, Szuta M. Minor salivary gland tumours of upper aerodigestive tract: a clinicopathological study. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012; 2012: 780453
  • 39 Hyams VJ. Differential diagnosis of neoplasia of the palatine tonsil. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 1978; 3 (02) 117-126
  • 40 Moch H, Amin MB, Berney DM. et al. The 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs - Part A: Renal, penile, and testicular tumours. Eur Urol 2022; 82 (05) 458-468