Semin Neurol 2024; 44(02): 130-146
DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-1782616
Review Article

Epilepsy Care in Latin America and the Caribbean: Overcoming Challenges and Embracing Opportunities

Clio Rubinos
1   Division of Critical Care Neurology and Division of Epilepsy, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Daniel San-Juan
2   Epilepsy Clinic, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suárez, Epilepsy Service, Mexico City, Mexico
Carlos Alva-Diaz
3   Grupo de Investigación Neurociencia, Efectividad Clínica y Salud Pública, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Perú
4   Servicio de Neurología, Departamento de Medicina y Oficina de Apoyo a la Docencia e Investigación, Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrión, Callao, Perú
Jorge Burneo
5   Epilepsy Program and Neuroepidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
Andres Fernandez
6   Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Luis Carlos Mayor-Romero
7   Departmento de Neurologia, Fundación Santa Fe, Bogotá, Colombia
Jorge Vidaurre
8   Division of Pediatric Neurology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Loreto Rios-Pohl
9   Clínica Integral de Epilepsia Infanto-juvenil, Santiago, Chile
Maria Jose Bruzzone
10   Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
› Author Affiliations


The burden of epilepsy in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region causes a profound regional impact on the health care system and significantly contributes to the global epilepsy burden. As in many other resource-limited settings worldwide, health care professionals and patients with epilepsy in LAC countries face profound challenges due to a combination of factors, including high disease prevalence, stigmatization of epilepsy, disparities in access to care, limited resources, substantial treatment gaps, insufficient training opportunities for health care providers, and a diverse patient population with varying needs. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology of epilepsy and discusses the principal obstacles to epilepsy care and key contributors to the epilepsy diagnosis and treatment gap in the LAC region. We conclude by highlighting various initiatives across different LAC countries to improve epilepsy care in marginalized communities, listing strategies to mitigate treatment gaps and facilitate better health care access for patients with epilepsy by enhancing the epilepsy workforce.

Publication History

Article published online:
27 March 2024

© 2024. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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