Facial plast Surg 2008; 24(2): 204-210
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1075835
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Dynamic Muscle Transfer in Facial Reanimation

Kofi D.O Boahene1
  • 1Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
09 May 2008 (online)


Dynamic muscle transfers offer the hope of improved facial support and symmetry, with volitional movement. These are most commonly employed for reanimation of the oral commissure to produce a smile. In addition, muscle transfers have been used successfully to reestablish eye closure. Facial paralysis of long-standing duration presents challenges quite distinct from paralysis that is managed early after onset. It is in this situation, most commonly, that dynamic muscle transfers are used. In this respect, the alternative is free tissue transfer. Each of these two options have advantages and disadvantages.