Apoptotic Count as a Guide for Histological Grading of Carcinoma Esophagus: A Light Microscopic StudySource of Support: Nil
Background: Many studies have been done in the past on the correlation between apoptotic count and histological grading of different tumors.
Aims: The study aims to find out if a correlation between apoptotic count and histological grading exists in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, and also to review the literature on such a relationship in the context of some other tumors.
Settings and Design: Cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus who presented at a tertiary care center over a period of one year were reviewed.
Materials and Methods: The endoscopic biopsy specimens of 56 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed for routine paraffin sections, sections taken, stained by hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscope, using 40x objective and 10x eyepiece. Apoptotic bodies were counted in each high-power field (HPF).
Statistical Analysis Used: Standard error of difference in apoptotic count in different tumor groups found and P value calculated, using Student′s t test.
Results: An inverse correlation of the apoptotic count per HPF with the histological grade of the tumor was found.
Conclusions: Grading of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, solely on the basis of apoptotic count can be used in the first place or to corroborate conventional histological grading done on the basis of morphology.
29 January 2020 (online)
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India
- 1 Cummings MC, Winterford CM, Walker NI. Apoptosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:88-101.
- 2 Kerr JFR, Wyllie AH, Currier AR. Apoptosis: A basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 1972;26:239-57.
- 3 Harrison DJ. Counting apoptosis - why and how? J Clin Pathol 1996;49:M2454.
- 4 Drachenberg CB, Loffe OB, Papadimitriou JC. Progressive increase of apoptosis in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma: Comparison between insitu end labeling of fragmented DNA and detection by routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1997;121:54-8.
- 5 Guler N, Uckan S, Celik I, Oznurlu Y, Uckan D. Expression of Fas and Fas-ligand and analysis of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions in squamous cell carcinoma: relationships with tumor stage and grade, and apoptosis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005;34:900-6.
- 6 Reed SI, Bailly E, Dulic V, Hengst L, Resnitzky D, Slingerland J. G1 control in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci 1994;18:69-73.
- 7 McGill G, Shimamura A, Bates RC, Savage RE, Fisher DE. Loss of matrix adhesion triggers rapid transformation-selective apoptosis in fibroblasts. J Cell Biol 1997;138:901-11.
- 8 Li Y, Chopp M, Jiang N, Zhang ZG, Zaloga C. Induction of DNA fragmentation after 10 to 120 minutes of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke 1995;26:1252-7.
- 9 Leoncidi L, Del Vecchio MT, Spina D, Megha T, Barbini P, Sabattini E, et al. Presence of the bcl-2 protein and apoptosis in non-Hodgkin lymphomas with diffuse growth pattern. Int J Cancer 1995;61:826-31.
- 10 Rigal-Huguet F, Gopas J, Prinsloo I, Pris J, Delsol G, Reed JC, et al. Frequent expression of the cell death-inducing gene bax in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin′s disease. Blood 1996;87:2470-5.
- 11 Ikpatt F, Kuopio T, Erekul A, Collan Y. Apoptosis in breast cancer: Nigerian vs. Finnish material. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2002;24:73-80.
- 12 Heatley MK. Association between the apoptotic index and established prognostic parameters in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Histopathology 1995;27:469-72.
- 13 Saltman B, Singh B, Hedvat CV, Wreesmann VB, Ghossein R. Patterns of expression of cell cycle/apoptosis genes along the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression. Surgery 2006;140:899-905.
- 14 Dey P, Das R, Sabuddin. Correlations between apoptotic and proliferative indices in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2000;43:271-5.
- 15 Jalali Nadoushan MR, Peivareh H, Azizzadeh Delshad A. Correlation between Apoptosis and Histological Grade of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder. Urol J 2004;3:177-9.
- 16 Mandal AK, Verma D, Mohanta PK, Saha R, Maeda T, Sugino T, et al. Prognostic significance of apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity with special reference to TNM stage, histological grade and survival. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2001;44:257-9.
- 17 Macluskey M, Baillie R, Chandrachud LM, Pendleton N, Schor AM. High levels of apoptosis are associated with improved survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res 2000;20:2123-8.
- 18 Bishop EF, Badve S, Morimiya A, Saxena R, Ulbright TM. Apoptosis in spermatocytic and usual seminomas: a light microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol 2007;20:1036-44.
- 19 Bedi A, Pastrich AP, Akhtar AJ, Barber JP, Bedi GC, Giardiello FM, et al. Inhibition of apoptosis during development of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1995;55:1811-6
- 20 Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B. Life (and death) in a malignant tumour. Nature 1996;379:19-20.